US Core Implementation Guide
4.1.0 - CI Build

US Core Implementation Guide, published by HL7 International - US Realm Steering Committee. This is not an authorized publication; it is the continuous build for version 4.1.0). This version is based on the current content of https://github.com/HL7/US-Core/ and changes regularly. See the Directory of published versions

Resource Profile: US Core Smoking Status Observation Profile

Defining URL:http://hl7.org/fhir/us/core/StructureDefinition/us-core-smokingstatus
Version:4.1.0
Name:USCoreSmokingStatusProfile
Title:US Core Smoking Status Observation Profile
Status:Active as of 2019-05-21T00:00:00+00:00
Definition:

Defines constraints and extensions on the Observation resource for the minimal set of data to query and retrieve patient's Smoking Status information.

Publisher:HL7 International - US Realm Steering Committee
Copyright:

Used by permission of HL7 International, all rights reserved Creative Commons License

Source Resource:XML / JSON / Turtle

The official URL for this profile is:

http://hl7.org/fhir/us/core/StructureDefinition/us-core-smokingstatus

This profile sets minimum expectations for the Observation resource to record, search, and fetch smoking status data associated with a patient. It identifies which core elements, extensions, vocabularies and value sets SHALL be present in the resource when using this profile.

Example Usage Scenarios:

The following are example usage scenarios for the US Core-SmokingStatus profile:

  • Query for the Smoking Status of a patient
  • Record or update the Smoking Status of a patient

Mandatory and Must Support Data Elements

The following data-elements must always be present (Mandatory definition]) or must be supported if the data is present in the sending system (Must Support definition). They are presented below in a simple human-readable explanation. Profile specific guidance and examples are provided as well. The Formal Profile Definition below provides the formal summary, definitions, and terminology requirements.

Each Observation must have:

  1. a status
  2. a category code of ‘social-history’
  3. a code for smoking observation
  4. a patient
  5. when the observation occurred
  6. a result value code for smoking status

Profile specific implementation guidance:

  • Smoking observation LOINC = 72166-2 Tobacco smoking status NHIS

Examples

Formal Views of Profile Content

Description of Profiles, Differentials, Snapshots and how the different presentations work.

This structure is derived from Observation

Summary

Mandatory: 7 elements
Must-Support: 7 elements

Structures

This structure refers to these other structures:

Slices

This structure defines the following Slices:

  • The element Observation.category is sliced based on the value of pattern:$this

This structure is derived from Observation

NameFlagsCard.TypeDescription & Constraintsdoco
.. Observation 0..*ObservationMeasurements and simple assertions
... status S1..1coderegistered | preliminary | final | amended +
Binding: US Core Status for Smoking Status Observation (required)
... Slices for category S1..*CodeableConceptClassification of type of observation
Slice: Unordered, Open by pattern:$this
.... category:SocialHistory S1..1CodeableConceptClassification of type of observation
Required Pattern: At least the following
..... coding1..*CodingCode defined by a terminology system
Fixed Value: (complex)
...... system1..1uriIdentity of the terminology system
Fixed Value: http://terminology.hl7.org/CodeSystem/observation-category
...... code1..1codeSymbol in syntax defined by the system
Fixed Value: social-history
... code S1..1CodeableConceptSmoking Status
Binding: US Core Smoking Status Observation Codes (extensible)
... subject S1..1Reference(US Core Patient Profile)Who and/or what the observation is about
... effectiveDateTime S1..1dateTimeClinically relevant time/time-period for observation
... valueCodeableConcept S1..1CodeableConceptCoded Responses from Smoking Status Value Set
Binding: Smoking Status (preferred): This value set enumerates codes SNOMED CT codes historically used for the current smoking status of a patient with a maximum required binding to Snomed CT codes.


doco Documentation for this format
NameFlagsCard.TypeDescription & Constraintsdoco
.. Observation I0..*ObservationMeasurements and simple assertions
... id Σ0..1stringLogical id of this artifact
... meta Σ0..1MetaMetadata about the resource
... implicitRules ?!Σ0..1uriA set of rules under which this content was created
... language 0..1codeLanguage of the resource content
Binding: CommonLanguages (preferred)
Max Binding: AllLanguages: A human language.

... text 0..1NarrativeText summary of the resource, for human interpretation
... contained 0..*ResourceContained, inline Resources
... extension 0..*ExtensionAdditional content defined by implementations
... modifierExtension ?!0..*ExtensionExtensions that cannot be ignored
... identifier Σ0..*IdentifierBusiness Identifier for observation
... basedOn Σ0..*Reference(CarePlan | DeviceRequest | ImmunizationRecommendation | MedicationRequest | NutritionOrder | ServiceRequest)Fulfills plan, proposal or order
... partOf Σ0..*Reference(MedicationAdministration | MedicationDispense | MedicationStatement | Procedure | Immunization | ImagingStudy)Part of referenced event
... status ?!SΣ1..1coderegistered | preliminary | final | amended +
Binding: US Core Status for Smoking Status Observation (required)
... Slices for category S1..*CodeableConceptClassification of type of observation
Slice: Unordered, Open by pattern:$this
Binding: ObservationCategoryCodes (preferred): Codes for high level observation categories.


.... category:SocialHistory S1..1CodeableConceptClassification of type of observation
Binding: ObservationCategoryCodes (preferred): Codes for high level observation categories.



Required Pattern: At least the following
..... id0..1stringUnique id for inter-element referencing
..... extension0..*ExtensionAdditional content defined by implementations
..... coding1..*CodingCode defined by a terminology system
Fixed Value: (complex)
...... id0..1stringUnique id for inter-element referencing
...... extension0..*ExtensionAdditional content defined by implementations
...... system1..1uriIdentity of the terminology system
Fixed Value: http://terminology.hl7.org/CodeSystem/observation-category
...... version0..1stringVersion of the system - if relevant
...... code1..1codeSymbol in syntax defined by the system
Fixed Value: social-history
...... display0..1stringRepresentation defined by the system
...... userSelected0..1booleanIf this coding was chosen directly by the user
..... text0..1stringPlain text representation of the concept
... code SΣ1..1CodeableConceptSmoking Status
Binding: US Core Smoking Status Observation Codes (extensible)
... subject SΣ1..1Reference(US Core Patient Profile)Who and/or what the observation is about
... focus Σ0..*Reference(Resource)What the observation is about, when it is not about the subject of record
... encounter Σ0..1Reference(Encounter)Healthcare event during which this observation is made
... Slices for effective[x] Σ1..1dateTimeClinically relevant time/time-period for observation
Slice: Unordered, Closed by type:$this
.... effective[x]:effectiveDateTime SΣ1..1dateTimeClinically relevant time/time-period for observation
... issued Σ0..1instantDate/Time this version was made available
... performer Σ0..*Reference(Practitioner | PractitionerRole | Organization | CareTeam | Patient | RelatedPerson)Who is responsible for the observation
... Slices for value[x] ΣI1..1CodeableConceptActual result
Slice: Unordered, Closed by type:$this
.... value[x]:valueCodeableConcept SΣI1..1CodeableConceptCoded Responses from Smoking Status Value Set
Binding: Smoking Status (preferred)
Max Binding: US Core Smoking Status Max-Binding: This value set enumerates codes SNOMED CT codes historically used for the current smoking status of a patient with a maximum required binding to Snomed CT codes.

... dataAbsentReason I0..1CodeableConceptWhy the result is missing
Binding: DataAbsentReason (extensible): Codes specifying why the result (Observation.value[x]) is missing.

... interpretation 0..*CodeableConceptHigh, low, normal, etc.
Binding: ObservationInterpretationCodes (extensible): Codes identifying interpretations of observations.


... note 0..*AnnotationComments about the observation
... bodySite 0..1CodeableConceptObserved body part
Binding: SNOMEDCTBodyStructures (example): Codes describing anatomical locations. May include laterality.

... method 0..1CodeableConceptHow it was done
Binding: ObservationMethods (example): Methods for simple observations.

... specimen 0..1Reference(Specimen)Specimen used for this observation
... device 0..1Reference(Device | DeviceMetric)(Measurement) Device
... referenceRange I0..*BackboneElementProvides guide for interpretation
obs-3: Must have at least a low or a high or text
.... id 0..1stringUnique id for inter-element referencing
.... extension 0..*ExtensionAdditional content defined by implementations
.... modifierExtension ?!Σ0..*ExtensionExtensions that cannot be ignored even if unrecognized
.... low I0..1SimpleQuantityLow Range, if relevant
.... high I0..1SimpleQuantityHigh Range, if relevant
.... type 0..1CodeableConceptReference range qualifier
Binding: ObservationReferenceRangeMeaningCodes (preferred): Code for the meaning of a reference range.

.... appliesTo 0..*CodeableConceptReference range population
Binding: ObservationReferenceRangeAppliesToCodes (example): Codes identifying the population the reference range applies to.


.... age 0..1RangeApplicable age range, if relevant
.... text 0..1stringText based reference range in an observation
... hasMember Σ0..*Reference(Observation | QuestionnaireResponse | MolecularSequence)Related resource that belongs to the Observation group
... derivedFrom Σ0..*Reference(DocumentReference | ImagingStudy | Media | QuestionnaireResponse | Observation | MolecularSequence)Related measurements the observation is made from
... component Σ0..*BackboneElementComponent results
.... id 0..1stringUnique id for inter-element referencing
.... extension 0..*ExtensionAdditional content defined by implementations
.... modifierExtension ?!Σ0..*ExtensionExtensions that cannot be ignored even if unrecognized
.... code Σ1..1CodeableConceptType of component observation (code / type)
Binding: LOINCCodes (example): Codes identifying names of simple observations.

.... value[x] Σ0..1Actual component result
..... valueQuantityQuantity
..... valueCodeableConceptCodeableConcept
..... valueStringstring
..... valueBooleanboolean
..... valueIntegerinteger
..... valueRangeRange
..... valueRatioRatio
..... valueSampledDataSampledData
..... valueTimetime
..... valueDateTimedateTime
..... valuePeriodPeriod
.... dataAbsentReason I0..1CodeableConceptWhy the component result is missing
Binding: DataAbsentReason (extensible): Codes specifying why the result (Observation.value[x]) is missing.

.... interpretation 0..*CodeableConceptHigh, low, normal, etc.
Binding: ObservationInterpretationCodes (extensible): Codes identifying interpretations of observations.


.... referenceRange 0..*See referenceRange (Observation)Provides guide for interpretation of component result

doco Documentation for this format
NameFlagsCard.TypeDescription & Constraintsdoco
.. Observation I0..*ObservationMeasurements and simple assertions
... status ?!Σ1..1coderegistered | preliminary | final | amended +
Binding: US Core Status for Smoking Status Observation (required)
... Slices for category 1..*CodeableConceptClassification of type of observation
Slice: Unordered, Open by pattern:$this
Binding: ObservationCategoryCodes (preferred): Codes for high level observation categories.


.... category:SocialHistory 1..1CodeableConceptClassification of type of observation
Binding: ObservationCategoryCodes (preferred): Codes for high level observation categories.



Required Pattern: At least the following
..... coding1..*CodingCode defined by a terminology system
Fixed Value: (complex)
...... system1..1uriIdentity of the terminology system
Fixed Value: http://terminology.hl7.org/CodeSystem/observation-category
...... code1..1codeSymbol in syntax defined by the system
Fixed Value: social-history
... code Σ1..1CodeableConceptSmoking Status
Binding: US Core Smoking Status Observation Codes (extensible)
... subject Σ1..1Reference(US Core Patient Profile)Who and/or what the observation is about
... effective[x]:effectiveDateTime Σ1..1dateTimeClinically relevant time/time-period for observation
... value[x]:valueCodeableConcept ΣI1..1CodeableConceptCoded Responses from Smoking Status Value Set
Binding: Smoking Status (preferred)
Max Binding: US Core Smoking Status Max-Binding: This value set enumerates codes SNOMED CT codes historically used for the current smoking status of a patient with a maximum required binding to Snomed CT codes.


doco Documentation for this format

This structure is derived from Observation

Summary

Mandatory: 7 elements
Must-Support: 7 elements

Structures

This structure refers to these other structures:

Slices

This structure defines the following Slices:

  • The element Observation.category is sliced based on the value of pattern:$this

Differential View

This structure is derived from Observation

NameFlagsCard.TypeDescription & Constraintsdoco
.. Observation 0..*ObservationMeasurements and simple assertions
... status S1..1coderegistered | preliminary | final | amended +
Binding: US Core Status for Smoking Status Observation (required)
... Slices for category S1..*CodeableConceptClassification of type of observation
Slice: Unordered, Open by pattern:$this
.... category:SocialHistory S1..1CodeableConceptClassification of type of observation
Required Pattern: At least the following
..... coding1..*CodingCode defined by a terminology system
Fixed Value: (complex)
...... system1..1uriIdentity of the terminology system
Fixed Value: http://terminology.hl7.org/CodeSystem/observation-category
...... code1..1codeSymbol in syntax defined by the system
Fixed Value: social-history
... code S1..1CodeableConceptSmoking Status
Binding: US Core Smoking Status Observation Codes (extensible)
... subject S1..1Reference(US Core Patient Profile)Who and/or what the observation is about
... effectiveDateTime S1..1dateTimeClinically relevant time/time-period for observation
... valueCodeableConcept S1..1CodeableConceptCoded Responses from Smoking Status Value Set
Binding: Smoking Status (preferred): This value set enumerates codes SNOMED CT codes historically used for the current smoking status of a patient with a maximum required binding to Snomed CT codes.


doco Documentation for this format

Snapshot View

NameFlagsCard.TypeDescription & Constraintsdoco
.. Observation I0..*ObservationMeasurements and simple assertions
... id Σ0..1stringLogical id of this artifact
... meta Σ0..1MetaMetadata about the resource
... implicitRules ?!Σ0..1uriA set of rules under which this content was created
... language 0..1codeLanguage of the resource content
Binding: CommonLanguages (preferred)
Max Binding: AllLanguages: A human language.

... text 0..1NarrativeText summary of the resource, for human interpretation
... contained 0..*ResourceContained, inline Resources
... extension 0..*ExtensionAdditional content defined by implementations
... modifierExtension ?!0..*ExtensionExtensions that cannot be ignored
... identifier Σ0..*IdentifierBusiness Identifier for observation
... basedOn Σ0..*Reference(CarePlan | DeviceRequest | ImmunizationRecommendation | MedicationRequest | NutritionOrder | ServiceRequest)Fulfills plan, proposal or order
... partOf Σ0..*Reference(MedicationAdministration | MedicationDispense | MedicationStatement | Procedure | Immunization | ImagingStudy)Part of referenced event
... status ?!SΣ1..1coderegistered | preliminary | final | amended +
Binding: US Core Status for Smoking Status Observation (required)
... Slices for category S1..*CodeableConceptClassification of type of observation
Slice: Unordered, Open by pattern:$this
Binding: ObservationCategoryCodes (preferred): Codes for high level observation categories.


.... category:SocialHistory S1..1CodeableConceptClassification of type of observation
Binding: ObservationCategoryCodes (preferred): Codes for high level observation categories.



Required Pattern: At least the following
..... id0..1stringUnique id for inter-element referencing
..... extension0..*ExtensionAdditional content defined by implementations
..... coding1..*CodingCode defined by a terminology system
Fixed Value: (complex)
...... id0..1stringUnique id for inter-element referencing
...... extension0..*ExtensionAdditional content defined by implementations
...... system1..1uriIdentity of the terminology system
Fixed Value: http://terminology.hl7.org/CodeSystem/observation-category
...... version0..1stringVersion of the system - if relevant
...... code1..1codeSymbol in syntax defined by the system
Fixed Value: social-history
...... display0..1stringRepresentation defined by the system
...... userSelected0..1booleanIf this coding was chosen directly by the user
..... text0..1stringPlain text representation of the concept
... code SΣ1..1CodeableConceptSmoking Status
Binding: US Core Smoking Status Observation Codes (extensible)
... subject SΣ1..1Reference(US Core Patient Profile)Who and/or what the observation is about
... focus Σ0..*Reference(Resource)What the observation is about, when it is not about the subject of record
... encounter Σ0..1Reference(Encounter)Healthcare event during which this observation is made
... Slices for effective[x] Σ1..1dateTimeClinically relevant time/time-period for observation
Slice: Unordered, Closed by type:$this
.... effective[x]:effectiveDateTime SΣ1..1dateTimeClinically relevant time/time-period for observation
... issued Σ0..1instantDate/Time this version was made available
... performer Σ0..*Reference(Practitioner | PractitionerRole | Organization | CareTeam | Patient | RelatedPerson)Who is responsible for the observation
... Slices for value[x] ΣI1..1CodeableConceptActual result
Slice: Unordered, Closed by type:$this
.... value[x]:valueCodeableConcept SΣI1..1CodeableConceptCoded Responses from Smoking Status Value Set
Binding: Smoking Status (preferred)
Max Binding: US Core Smoking Status Max-Binding: This value set enumerates codes SNOMED CT codes historically used for the current smoking status of a patient with a maximum required binding to Snomed CT codes.

... dataAbsentReason I0..1CodeableConceptWhy the result is missing
Binding: DataAbsentReason (extensible): Codes specifying why the result (Observation.value[x]) is missing.

... interpretation 0..*CodeableConceptHigh, low, normal, etc.
Binding: ObservationInterpretationCodes (extensible): Codes identifying interpretations of observations.


... note 0..*AnnotationComments about the observation
... bodySite 0..1CodeableConceptObserved body part
Binding: SNOMEDCTBodyStructures (example): Codes describing anatomical locations. May include laterality.

... method 0..1CodeableConceptHow it was done
Binding: ObservationMethods (example): Methods for simple observations.

... specimen 0..1Reference(Specimen)Specimen used for this observation
... device 0..1Reference(Device | DeviceMetric)(Measurement) Device
... referenceRange I0..*BackboneElementProvides guide for interpretation
obs-3: Must have at least a low or a high or text
.... id 0..1stringUnique id for inter-element referencing
.... extension 0..*ExtensionAdditional content defined by implementations
.... modifierExtension ?!Σ0..*ExtensionExtensions that cannot be ignored even if unrecognized
.... low I0..1SimpleQuantityLow Range, if relevant
.... high I0..1SimpleQuantityHigh Range, if relevant
.... type 0..1CodeableConceptReference range qualifier
Binding: ObservationReferenceRangeMeaningCodes (preferred): Code for the meaning of a reference range.

.... appliesTo 0..*CodeableConceptReference range population
Binding: ObservationReferenceRangeAppliesToCodes (example): Codes identifying the population the reference range applies to.


.... age 0..1RangeApplicable age range, if relevant
.... text 0..1stringText based reference range in an observation
... hasMember Σ0..*Reference(Observation | QuestionnaireResponse | MolecularSequence)Related resource that belongs to the Observation group
... derivedFrom Σ0..*Reference(DocumentReference | ImagingStudy | Media | QuestionnaireResponse | Observation | MolecularSequence)Related measurements the observation is made from
... component Σ0..*BackboneElementComponent results
.... id 0..1stringUnique id for inter-element referencing
.... extension 0..*ExtensionAdditional content defined by implementations
.... modifierExtension ?!Σ0..*ExtensionExtensions that cannot be ignored even if unrecognized
.... code Σ1..1CodeableConceptType of component observation (code / type)
Binding: LOINCCodes (example): Codes identifying names of simple observations.

.... value[x] Σ0..1Actual component result
..... valueQuantityQuantity
..... valueCodeableConceptCodeableConcept
..... valueStringstring
..... valueBooleanboolean
..... valueIntegerinteger
..... valueRangeRange
..... valueRatioRatio
..... valueSampledDataSampledData
..... valueTimetime
..... valueDateTimedateTime
..... valuePeriodPeriod
.... dataAbsentReason I0..1CodeableConceptWhy the component result is missing
Binding: DataAbsentReason (extensible): Codes specifying why the result (Observation.value[x]) is missing.

.... interpretation 0..*CodeableConceptHigh, low, normal, etc.
Binding: ObservationInterpretationCodes (extensible): Codes identifying interpretations of observations.


.... referenceRange 0..*See referenceRange (Observation)Provides guide for interpretation of component result

doco Documentation for this format

 

Other representations of profile: CSV, Excel, Schematron

Terminology Bindings

PathConformanceValueSet / Code
Observation.languagepreferredCommonLanguages
Max Binding: AllLanguages
Observation.statusrequiredUSCoreObservationSmokingStatusStatus
Observation.categorypreferredObservationCategoryCodes
Observation.category:SocialHistorypreferredPattern: social-history
Observation.codeextensibleUSCoreSmokingStatusObservationCodes
Observation.value[x]:valueCodeableConceptpreferredSmoking Status
Max Binding: US Core Smoking Status Max-Binding
Observation.dataAbsentReasonextensibleDataAbsentReason
Observation.interpretationextensibleObservationInterpretationCodes
Observation.bodySiteexampleSNOMEDCTBodyStructures
Observation.methodexampleObservationMethods
Observation.referenceRange.typepreferredObservationReferenceRangeMeaningCodes
Observation.referenceRange.appliesToexampleObservationReferenceRangeAppliesToCodes
Observation.component.codeexampleLOINCCodes
Observation.component.dataAbsentReasonextensibleDataAbsentReason
Observation.component.interpretationextensibleObservationInterpretationCodes

Constraints

IdPathDetailsRequirements
obs-3Observation.referenceRangeMust have at least a low or a high or text
: low.exists() or high.exists() or text.exists()

Notes:


Quick Start


Below is an overview of the required Server RESTful FHIR interactions for this profile - for example, search and read operations - when supporting the US Core interactions to access this profile’s information (Profile Support + Interaction Support). Note that systems that support only US Core Profiles (Profile Only Support) are not required to support these interactions. See the US Core Server CapabilityStatement for a complete list of supported RESTful interactions for this IG.

  • The syntax used to describe the interactions is described here.
  • See the General Guidance section for additional rules and expectations when a server requires status parameters.
  • See the General Guidance section for additional guidance on searching for multiple patients.

Mandatory Search Parameters:

The following search parameters and search parameter combinations SHALL be supported:

  1. SHALL support searching using the combination of the patient and code search parameters:
    • including optional support for composite OR search on code (e.g.code={system|}[code],{system|}[code],...)

    GET [base]/Observation?patient={Type/}[id]&code=http://loinc.org|72166-2

    Example:

    1. GET [base]/Observation?patient=1032702&code=http://loinc.org|72166-2

    Implementation Notes: Fetches a bundle of all Observation resources for the specified patient and observation code. (how to search by reference and how to search by token)