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11.5 Resource Medication - Content

Pharmacy Work GroupMaturity Level: 3 Trial UseSecurity Category: Business Compartments: Not linked to any defined compartments

This resource is primarily used for the identification and definition of a medication for the purposes of prescribing, dispensing, and administering a medication as well as for making statements about medication use.

Representing medications in the majority of healthcare settings is a matter of identifying an item from a list and then conveying a reference for the item selected either into a patient-related resource or to other applications. Additional information about the medication is frequently provided for human verification, but a full representation of the details of composition and efficacy of the medicine is conveyed by referring to drug dictionaries by means of the codes they define. There are some occasions where it is necessary to identify slightly more detail, such as when dispensing a package containing a particular medication requires identification both of the medicine and the package at once. There are also some occasions (e.g. custom formulations) where the composition of a medicine must be represented. In these cases, the ingredients of the medicine have to be specified together with the amount contained, though the Medication resource does not provide full details.

The Medication resource allows for medications to be characterized by the form of the drug and the ingredient (or ingredients), as well as how it is packaged. The medication will include the ingredient(s) and their strength(s) and the package can include the amount (for example, number of tablets, volume, etc.) that is contained in a particular container (for example, 100 capsules of Amoxicillin 500mg per bottle).

The Medication resource can be used to describe a compounded (aka extemporaneous or magistral) product that is manufactured by the pharmacy at the time of dispensing. In this case there will be multiple ingredients which are typically base chemicals (for example, hydrocortisone powder) and there may be other ingredients that are manufactured products (for example, Glaxal Base).

When a medication includes a package, further details about the composition can be provided. A package has a container (vacuum packed box, jar, etc.) and a list of the products or other packages that are in the package.

This resource is referenced by ActivityDefinition, AdverseEvent, CarePlan, CatalogEntry, ChargeItem, ChargeItemDefinition, Flag, Group, itself, MedicationAdministration, MedicationDispense, MedicationKnowledge, MedicationRequest, MedicationStatement, MedicinalProductContraindication, MedicinalProductIndication, MedicinalProductInteraction, MedicinalProductUndesirableEffect, Procedure, SupplyDelivery and SupplyRequest

Structure

NameFlagsCard.TypeDescription & Constraintsdoco
.. Medication TUDomainResourceDefinition of a Medication
Elements defined in Ancestors: id, meta, implicitRules, language, text, contained, extension, modifierExtension
... identifier Σ0..*IdentifierBusiness identifier for this medication
... code Σ0..1CodeableConceptCodes that identify this medication
SNOMED CT Medication Codes (Example)
... status ?!Σ0..1codeactive | inactive | entered-in-error
Medication status codes (Required)
... manufacturer Σ0..1Reference(Organization)Manufacturer of the item
... form 0..1CodeableConceptpowder | tablets | capsule +
SNOMED CT Form Codes (Example)
... amount Σ0..1RatioAmount of drug in package
... ingredient 0..*BackboneElementActive or inactive ingredient
.... item[x] 1..1The actual ingredient or content
..... itemCodeableConceptCodeableConcept
..... itemReferenceReference(Substance | Medication)
.... isActive 0..1booleanActive ingredient indicator
.... strength 0..1RatioQuantity of ingredient present
... batch 0..1BackboneElementDetails about packaged medications
.... lotNumber 0..1stringIdentifier assigned to batch
.... expirationDate 0..1dateTimeWhen batch will expire

doco Documentation for this format

UML Diagram (Legend)

Medication (DomainResource)Business identifier for this medicationidentifier : Identifier [0..*]A code (or set of codes) that specify this medication, or a textual description if no code is available. Usage note: This could be a standard medication code such as a code from RxNorm, SNOMED CT, IDMP etc. It could also be a national or local formulary code, optionally with translations to other code systemscode : CodeableConcept [0..1] « A coded concept that defines the type of a medication. (Strength=Example)SNOMEDCTMedicationCodes?? »A code to indicate if the medication is in active use (this element modifies the meaning of other elements)status : code [0..1] « A coded concept defining if the medication is in active use. (Strength=Required)Medication Status ! »Describes the details of the manufacturer of the medication product. This is not intended to represent the distributor of a medication productmanufacturer : Reference [0..1] « Organization »Describes the form of the item. Powder; tablets; capsuleform : CodeableConcept [0..1] « A coded concept defining the form of a medication. (Strength=Example)SNOMEDCTFormCodes?? »Specific amount of the drug in the packaged product. For example, when specifying a product that has the same strength (For example, Insulin glargine 100 unit per mL solution for injection), this attribute provides additional clarification of the package amount (For example, 3 mL, 10mL, etc.)amount : Ratio [0..1]IngredientThe actual ingredient - either a substance (simple ingredient) or another medication of a medicationitem[x] : Type [1..1] « CodeableConcept|Reference(Substance| Medication) »Indication of whether this ingredient affects the therapeutic action of the drugisActive : boolean [0..1]Specifies how many (or how much) of the items there are in this Medication. For example, 250 mg per tablet. This is expressed as a ratio where the numerator is 250mg and the denominator is 1 tabletstrength : Ratio [0..1]BatchThe assigned lot number of a batch of the specified productlotNumber : string [0..1]When this specific batch of product will expireexpirationDate : dateTime [0..1]Identifies a particular constituent of interest in the productingredient[0..*]Information that only applies to packages (not products)batch[0..1]

XML Template

<Medication xmlns="http://hl7.org/fhir"> doco
 <!-- from Resource: id, meta, implicitRules, and language -->
 <!-- from DomainResource: text, contained, extension, and modifierExtension -->
 <identifier><!-- 0..* Identifier Business identifier for this medication --></identifier>
 <code><!-- 0..1 CodeableConcept Codes that identify this medication --></code>
 <status value="[code]"/><!-- 0..1 active | inactive | entered-in-error -->
 <manufacturer><!-- 0..1 Reference(Organization) Manufacturer of the item --></manufacturer>
 <form><!-- 0..1 CodeableConcept powder | tablets | capsule + --></form>
 <amount><!-- 0..1 Ratio Amount of drug in package --></amount>
 <ingredient>  <!-- 0..* Active or inactive ingredient -->
  <item[x]><!-- 1..1 CodeableConcept|Reference(Substance|Medication) The actual ingredient or content --></item[x]>
  <isActive value="[boolean]"/><!-- 0..1 Active ingredient indicator -->
  <strength><!-- 0..1 Ratio Quantity of ingredient present --></strength>
 </ingredient>
 <batch>  <!-- 0..1 Details about packaged medications -->
  <lotNumber value="[string]"/><!-- 0..1 Identifier assigned to batch -->
  <expirationDate value="[dateTime]"/><!-- 0..1 When batch will expire -->
 </batch>
</Medication>

Turtle Template

@prefix fhir: <http://hl7.org/fhir/> .doco


[ a fhir:Medication;
  fhir:nodeRole fhir:treeRoot; # if this is the parser root

  # from Resource: .id, .meta, .implicitRules, and .language
  # from DomainResource: .text, .contained, .extension, and .modifierExtension
  fhir:Medication.identifier [ Identifier ], ... ; # 0..* Business identifier for this medication
  fhir:Medication.code [ CodeableConcept ]; # 0..1 Codes that identify this medication
  fhir:Medication.status [ code ]; # 0..1 active | inactive | entered-in-error
  fhir:Medication.manufacturer [ Reference(Organization) ]; # 0..1 Manufacturer of the item
  fhir:Medication.form [ CodeableConcept ]; # 0..1 powder | tablets | capsule +
  fhir:Medication.amount [ Ratio ]; # 0..1 Amount of drug in package
  fhir:Medication.ingredient [ # 0..* Active or inactive ingredient
    # Medication.ingredient.item[x] : 1..1 The actual ingredient or content. One of these 2
      fhir:Medication.ingredient.itemCodeableConcept [ CodeableConcept ]
      fhir:Medication.ingredient.itemReference [ Reference(Substance|Medication) ]
    fhir:Medication.ingredient.isActive [ boolean ]; # 0..1 Active ingredient indicator
    fhir:Medication.ingredient.strength [ Ratio ]; # 0..1 Quantity of ingredient present
  ], ...;
  fhir:Medication.batch [ # 0..1 Details about packaged medications
    fhir:Medication.batch.lotNumber [ string ]; # 0..1 Identifier assigned to batch
    fhir:Medication.batch.expirationDate [ dateTime ]; # 0..1 When batch will expire
  ];
]

Changes since R3

Medication
Medication.identifier
  • Added Element
Medication.status
  • Change value set from http://hl7.org/fhir/ValueSet/medication-status to http://hl7.org/fhir/ValueSet/medication-status|4.0.0
  • Now marked as Modifier
Medication.amount
  • Added Element
Medication.ingredient.strength
  • Added Element
Medication.batch
  • Added Element
Medication.batch.lotNumber
  • Added Element
Medication.batch.expirationDate
  • Added Element
Medication.isBrand
  • deleted
Medication.isOverTheCounter
  • deleted
Medication.ingredient.amount
  • deleted
Medication.package
  • deleted
Medication.image
  • deleted

See the Full Difference for further information

This analysis is available as XML or JSON.

See R3 <--> R4 Conversion Maps (status = 23 tests that all execute ok. 22 fail round-trip testing and 22 r3 resources are invalid (0 errors).)

Structure

NameFlagsCard.TypeDescription & Constraintsdoco
.. Medication TUDomainResourceDefinition of a Medication
Elements defined in Ancestors: id, meta, implicitRules, language, text, contained, extension, modifierExtension
... identifier Σ0..*IdentifierBusiness identifier for this medication
... code Σ0..1CodeableConceptCodes that identify this medication
SNOMED CT Medication Codes (Example)
... status ?!Σ0..1codeactive | inactive | entered-in-error
Medication status codes (Required)
... manufacturer Σ0..1Reference(Organization)Manufacturer of the item
... form 0..1CodeableConceptpowder | tablets | capsule +
SNOMED CT Form Codes (Example)
... amount Σ0..1RatioAmount of drug in package
... ingredient 0..*BackboneElementActive or inactive ingredient
.... item[x] 1..1The actual ingredient or content
..... itemCodeableConceptCodeableConcept
..... itemReferenceReference(Substance | Medication)
.... isActive 0..1booleanActive ingredient indicator
.... strength 0..1RatioQuantity of ingredient present
... batch 0..1BackboneElementDetails about packaged medications
.... lotNumber 0..1stringIdentifier assigned to batch
.... expirationDate 0..1dateTimeWhen batch will expire

doco Documentation for this format

UML Diagram (Legend)

Medication (DomainResource)Business identifier for this medicationidentifier : Identifier [0..*]A code (or set of codes) that specify this medication, or a textual description if no code is available. Usage note: This could be a standard medication code such as a code from RxNorm, SNOMED CT, IDMP etc. It could also be a national or local formulary code, optionally with translations to other code systemscode : CodeableConcept [0..1] « A coded concept that defines the type of a medication. (Strength=Example)SNOMEDCTMedicationCodes?? »A code to indicate if the medication is in active use (this element modifies the meaning of other elements)status : code [0..1] « A coded concept defining if the medication is in active use. (Strength=Required)Medication Status ! »Describes the details of the manufacturer of the medication product. This is not intended to represent the distributor of a medication productmanufacturer : Reference [0..1] « Organization »Describes the form of the item. Powder; tablets; capsuleform : CodeableConcept [0..1] « A coded concept defining the form of a medication. (Strength=Example)SNOMEDCTFormCodes?? »Specific amount of the drug in the packaged product. For example, when specifying a product that has the same strength (For example, Insulin glargine 100 unit per mL solution for injection), this attribute provides additional clarification of the package amount (For example, 3 mL, 10mL, etc.)amount : Ratio [0..1]IngredientThe actual ingredient - either a substance (simple ingredient) or another medication of a medicationitem[x] : Type [1..1] « CodeableConcept|Reference(Substance| Medication) »Indication of whether this ingredient affects the therapeutic action of the drugisActive : boolean [0..1]Specifies how many (or how much) of the items there are in this Medication. For example, 250 mg per tablet. This is expressed as a ratio where the numerator is 250mg and the denominator is 1 tabletstrength : Ratio [0..1]BatchThe assigned lot number of a batch of the specified productlotNumber : string [0..1]When this specific batch of product will expireexpirationDate : dateTime [0..1]Identifies a particular constituent of interest in the productingredient[0..*]Information that only applies to packages (not products)batch[0..1]

XML Template

<Medication xmlns="http://hl7.org/fhir"> doco
 <!-- from Resource: id, meta, implicitRules, and language -->
 <!-- from DomainResource: text, contained, extension, and modifierExtension -->
 <identifier><!-- 0..* Identifier Business identifier for this medication --></identifier>
 <code><!-- 0..1 CodeableConcept Codes that identify this medication --></code>
 <status value="[code]"/><!-- 0..1 active | inactive | entered-in-error -->
 <manufacturer><!-- 0..1 Reference(Organization) Manufacturer of the item --></manufacturer>
 <form><!-- 0..1 CodeableConcept powder | tablets | capsule + --></form>
 <amount><!-- 0..1 Ratio Amount of drug in package --></amount>
 <ingredient>  <!-- 0..* Active or inactive ingredient -->
  <item[x]><!-- 1..1 CodeableConcept|Reference(Substance|Medication) The actual ingredient or content --></item[x]>
  <isActive value="[boolean]"/><!-- 0..1 Active ingredient indicator -->
  <strength><!-- 0..1 Ratio Quantity of ingredient present --></strength>
 </ingredient>
 <batch>  <!-- 0..1 Details about packaged medications -->
  <lotNumber value="[string]"/><!-- 0..1 Identifier assigned to batch -->
  <expirationDate value="[dateTime]"/><!-- 0..1 When batch will expire -->
 </batch>
</Medication>

Turtle Template

@prefix fhir: <http://hl7.org/fhir/> .doco


[ a fhir:Medication;
  fhir:nodeRole fhir:treeRoot; # if this is the parser root

  # from Resource: .id, .meta, .implicitRules, and .language
  # from DomainResource: .text, .contained, .extension, and .modifierExtension
  fhir:Medication.identifier [ Identifier ], ... ; # 0..* Business identifier for this medication
  fhir:Medication.code [ CodeableConcept ]; # 0..1 Codes that identify this medication
  fhir:Medication.status [ code ]; # 0..1 active | inactive | entered-in-error
  fhir:Medication.manufacturer [ Reference(Organization) ]; # 0..1 Manufacturer of the item
  fhir:Medication.form [ CodeableConcept ]; # 0..1 powder | tablets | capsule +
  fhir:Medication.amount [ Ratio ]; # 0..1 Amount of drug in package
  fhir:Medication.ingredient [ # 0..* Active or inactive ingredient
    # Medication.ingredient.item[x] : 1..1 The actual ingredient or content. One of these 2
      fhir:Medication.ingredient.itemCodeableConcept [ CodeableConcept ]
      fhir:Medication.ingredient.itemReference [ Reference(Substance|Medication) ]
    fhir:Medication.ingredient.isActive [ boolean ]; # 0..1 Active ingredient indicator
    fhir:Medication.ingredient.strength [ Ratio ]; # 0..1 Quantity of ingredient present
  ], ...;
  fhir:Medication.batch [ # 0..1 Details about packaged medications
    fhir:Medication.batch.lotNumber [ string ]; # 0..1 Identifier assigned to batch
    fhir:Medication.batch.expirationDate [ dateTime ]; # 0..1 When batch will expire
  ];
]

Changes since Release 3

Medication
Medication.identifier
  • Added Element
Medication.status
  • Change value set from http://hl7.org/fhir/ValueSet/medication-status to http://hl7.org/fhir/ValueSet/medication-status|4.0.0
  • Now marked as Modifier
Medication.amount
  • Added Element
Medication.ingredient.strength
  • Added Element
Medication.batch
  • Added Element
Medication.batch.lotNumber
  • Added Element
Medication.batch.expirationDate
  • Added Element
Medication.isBrand
  • deleted
Medication.isOverTheCounter
  • deleted
Medication.ingredient.amount
  • deleted
Medication.package
  • deleted
Medication.image
  • deleted

See the Full Difference for further information

This analysis is available as XML or JSON.

See R3 <--> R4 Conversion Maps (status = 23 tests that all execute ok. 22 fail round-trip testing and 22 r3 resources are invalid (0 errors).)

 

See the Profiles & Extensions and the alternate definitions: Master Definition XML + JSON, XML Schema/Schematron + JSON Schema, ShEx (for Turtle) + see the extensions & the dependency analysis

PathDefinitionTypeReference
Medication.code A coded concept that defines the type of a medication.ExampleSNOMEDCTMedicationCodes
Medication.status A coded concept defining if the medication is in active use.RequiredMedication Status Codes
Medication.form A coded concept defining the form of a medication.ExampleSNOMEDCTFormCodes

Medication does not have a status. If Medication was used to support a formulary use case, then an extension can be used to convey formulary statuses, such as active (e.g. the medication can be ordered) or inactive (e.g. the medication can be documented, but not ordered). Pharmacy is evaluating formulary use cases. Feedback is encouraged to the Pharmacy working group.

Search parameters for this resource. The common parameters also apply. See Searching for more information about searching in REST, messaging, and services.

NameTypeDescriptionExpressionIn Common
codetokenReturns medications for a specific codeMedication.code13 Resources
expiration-datedateReturns medications in a batch with this expiration dateMedication.batch.expirationDate
formtokenReturns medications for a specific dose formMedication.form
identifiertokenReturns medications with this external identifierMedication.identifier
ingredientreferenceReturns medications for this ingredient reference(Medication.ingredient.item as Reference)
(Medication, Substance)
ingredient-codetokenReturns medications for this ingredient code(Medication.ingredient.item as CodeableConcept)
lot-numbertokenReturns medications in a batch with this lot numberMedication.batch.lotNumber
manufacturerreferenceReturns medications made or sold for this manufacturerMedication.manufacturer
(Organization)
statustokenReturns medications for this statusMedication.status