Bundle - FHIR v3.4.0
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2.35 Resource Bundle - Content

FHIR Infrastructure Work GroupMaturity Level: 5 Normative Compartments: Not linked to any defined compartments

Normative Candidate Note: This page is candidate normative content for R4 in the Infrastructure Package. Once normative, it will lose it's Maturity Level, and breaking changes will no longer be made.

A container for a collection of resources.

One common operation performed with resources is to gather a collection of resources into a single instance with containing context. In FHIR this is referred to as "bundling" the resources together. These resource bundles are useful for a variety of different reasons, including:

  • Returning a set of resources that meet some criteria as part of a server operation (see RESTful Search)
  • Returning a set of versions of resources as part of the history operation on a server (see History)
  • Sending a set of resources as part of a message exchange (see Messaging)
  • Grouping a self-contained set of resources to act as an exchangeable and persistable collection with clinical integrity - e.g. a clinical document (see Documents)
  • Creating/updating/deleting a set of resources on a server as a single operation (including doing so as a single atomic transaction) (see Transactions)
  • Storing a collection of resources

There are two ways to collect resources together for transport and persistence purposes - contained resources, and bundles. There is an important difference between the two:

  • Contained resources are "in" the container resource - they can only ever be interpreted and/or changed in the context of the container
  • A bundle is a collection of resources that can have an independent existence - for example, they might also be accessed directly using the RESTful API

In addition to these two technical mechanisms, there are three these administrative and infrastructure resources which also support grouping of content. These resources do not contain resources directly, but instead use [Reference] to point to the grouped resources:

  • The List resource – Enumerates a flat collection of resources and provides features for managing the collection. While a particular List instance may represent a "snapshot", from a business process perspective the notion of "List" is dynamic – items are added and removed over time. The list resource references other resources. Lists may be curated and have specific business meaning.
  • The Group resource – Defines a group of specific people, animals, devices, etc. by enumerating them, or by describing qualities that group members have. The group resource refers to other resources, possibly implicitly. Groups are intended to be acted upon or observed as a whole; e.g. performing therapy on a group, calculating risk for a group, etc. This resource will commonly be used for public health (e.g. describing an at-risk population), clinical trials (e.g. defining a test subject pool) and similar purposes.
  • The Composition resource – Defines a set of healthcare-related information that is assembled together into a single logical document that provides a single coherent statement of meaning, establishes its own context and that has clinical attestation with regard to who is making the statement. The composition resource provides the basic structure of a FHIR document. The full content of the document is expressed using a Bundle. Compositions will often reference Lists as the focus of particular sections.

These three resources represent meaningful groupings of the resources they refer to (e.g. a discharge medication List, a Group of participants for a clinical trial, a set of resources that form a signed document), while a Bundle is merely is a container for resources used for transfer and storage. This list is not exhaustive; other resources also provde grouping functionality.

Structure

NameFlagsCard.TypeDescription & Constraintsdoco
.. Bundle ΣINResourceContains a collection of resources
+ Rule: total only when a search or history
+ Rule: entry.search only when a search
+ Rule: entry.request mandatory for batch/transaction/history, otherwise prohibited
+ Rule: entry.response mandatory for batch-response/transaction-response/history, otherwise prohibited
+ Rule: FullUrl must be unique in a bundle, or else entries with the same fullUrl must have different meta.versionId
+ Rule: A document must have an identifier with a system and a value
+ Rule: A document must have a date
+ Rule: A document must have a Composition as the first resource
+ Rule: A message must have a MessageHeader as the first resource
Elements defined in Ancestors: id, meta, implicitRules, language
... identifier Σ0..1IdentifierPersistent identifier for the bundle
... type Σ1..1codedocument | message | transaction | transaction-response | batch | batch-response | history | searchset | collection
BundleType (Required)
... timestamp Σ0..1instantWhen the bundle was assembled
... total ΣI0..1unsignedIntIf search, the total number of matches
... link Σ0..*BackboneElementLinks related to this Bundle
.... relation Σ1..1stringSee http://www.iana.org/assignments/link-relations/link-relations.xhtml#link-relations-1
.... url Σ1..1uriReference details for the link
... entry ΣI0..*BackboneElementEntry in the bundle - will have a resource or information
+ Rule: must be a resource unless there's a request or response
+ Rule: fullUrl cannot be a version specific reference
This repeating element order: For bundles of type 'document' and 'message', the first resource is special (must be Composition or MessageHeader respectively). For all bundles, the meaning of the order of entries depends on the bundle type
.... link Σ0..*see linkLinks related to this entry
.... fullUrl Σ0..1uriURI for resource (Absolute URL server address or URI for UUID/OID)
.... resource Σ0..1ResourceA resource in the bundle
.... search ΣI0..1BackboneElementSearch related information
..... mode Σ0..1codematch | include | outcome - why this is in the result set
SearchEntryMode (Required)
..... score Σ0..1decimalSearch ranking (between 0 and 1)
.... request ΣI0..1BackboneElementAdditional execution information (transaction/batch/history)
..... method Σ1..1codeGET | HEAD | POST | PUT | DELETE | PATCH
HTTPVerb (Required)
..... url Σ1..1uriURL for HTTP equivalent of this entry
..... ifNoneMatch Σ0..1stringFor managing cache currency
..... ifModifiedSince Σ0..1instantFor managing cache currency
..... ifMatch Σ0..1stringFor managing update contention
..... ifNoneExist Σ0..1stringFor conditional creates
.... response ΣI0..1BackboneElementResults of execution (transaction/batch/history)
..... status Σ1..1stringStatus response code (text optional)
..... location Σ0..1uriThe location (if the operation returns a location)
..... etag Σ0..1stringThe Etag for the resource (if relevant)
..... lastModified Σ0..1instantServer's date time modified
..... outcome Σ0..1ResourceOperationOutcome with hints and warnings (for batch/transaction)
... signature ΣTU0..1SignatureDigital Signature

doco Documentation for this format

UML Diagram (Legend)

Bundle (Resource)A persistent identifier for the bundle that won't change as a bundle is copied from server to serveridentifier : Identifier [0..1]Indicates the purpose of this bundle - how it is intended to be usedtype : code [1..1] « Indicates the purpose of a bundle - how it is intended to be used. (Strength=Required)BundleType! »The date/time that the bundle was assembled - i.e. when the resources were placed in the bundletimestamp : instant [0..1]If a set of search matches, this is the total number of entries of type 'match' across all pages in the search. It does not include search.mode = 'include' or 'outcome' entries and it does not provide a count of the number of entries in the Bundletotal : unsignedInt [0..1]Digital Signature - base64 encoded. XML-DSig or a JWTsignature : Signature [0..1]LinkA name which details the functional use for this link - see [http://www.iana.org/assignments/link-relations/link-relations.xhtml#link-relations-1](http://www.iana.org/assignments/link-relations/link-relations.xhtml#link-relations-1)relation : string [1..1]The reference details for the linkurl : uri [1..1]EntryThe Absolute URL for the resource. The fullUrl SHALL NOT disagree with the id in the resource - i.e. if the fullUrl is not a urn:uuid, the URL shall be version-independent URL consistent with the Resource.id. The fullUrl is a version independent reference to the resource. The fullUrl element SHALL have a value except that: * fullUrl can be empty on a POST (although it does not need to when specifying a temporary id for reference in the bundle) * Results from operations might involve resources that are not identifiedfullUrl : uri [0..1]The Resource for the entry. The purpose/meaning of the resource is determined by the Bundle.typeresource : Resource [0..1]SearchWhy this entry is in the result set - whether it's included as a match or because of an _include requirement, or to convey information or warning information about the search processmode : code [0..1] « Why an entry is in the result set - whether it's included as a match or because of an _include requirement, or to convey information or warning information about the search process. (Strength=Required)SearchEntryMode! »When searching, the server's search ranking score for the entryscore : decimal [0..1]RequestIn a transaction or batch, this is the HTTP action to be executed for this entry. In a history bundle, this indicates the HTTP action that occurredmethod : code [1..1] « HTTP verbs (in the HTTP command line). See [HTTP rfc](https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7231) for details. (Strength=Required)HTTPVerb! »The URL for this entry, relative to the root (the address to which the request is posted)url : uri [1..1]If the ETag values match, return a 304 Not Modified status. See the API documentation for ["Conditional Read"](http.html#cread)ifNoneMatch : string [0..1]Only perform the operation if the last updated date matches. See the API documentation for ["Conditional Read"](http.html#cread)ifModifiedSince : instant [0..1]Only perform the operation if the Etag value matches. For more information, see the API section ["Managing Resource Contention"](http.html#concurrency)ifMatch : string [0..1]Instruct the server not to perform the create if a specified resource already exists. For further information, see the API documentation for ["Conditional Create"](http.html#ccreate). This is just the query portion of the URL - what follows the "?" (not including the "?")ifNoneExist : string [0..1]ResponseThe status code returned by processing this entry. The status SHALL start with a 3 digit HTTP code (e.g. 404) and may contain the standard HTTP description associated with the status codestatus : string [1..1]The location header created by processing this operation, populated if the operation returns a locationlocation : uri [0..1]The Etag for the resource, if the operation for the entry produced a versioned resource (see [Resource Metadata and Versioning](http.html#versioning) and [Managing Resource Contention](http.html#concurrency))etag : string [0..1]The date/time that the resource was modified on the serverlastModified : instant [0..1]An OperationOutcome containing hints and warnings produced as part of processing this entry in a batch or transactionoutcome : Resource [0..1]A series of links that provide context to this bundlelink[0..*]A series of links that provide context to this entrylink[0..*]Information about the search process that lead to the creation of this entrysearch[0..1]Additional information about how this entry should be processed as part of a transaction or batch. For history, it shows how the entry was processed to create the version contained in the entryrequest[0..1]Indicates the results of processing the corresponding 'request' entry in the batch or transaction being responded to or what the results of an operation where when returning historyresponse[0..1]An entry in a bundle resource - will either contain a resource or information about a resource (transactions and history only)entry[0..*]

XML Template

<Bundle xmlns="http://hl7.org/fhir"> doco
 <!-- from Resource: id, meta, implicitRules, and language -->
 <identifier><!-- 0..1 Identifier Persistent identifier for the bundle --></identifier>
 <type value="[code]"/><!-- 1..1 document | message | transaction | transaction-response | batch | batch-response | history | searchset | collection -->
 <timestamp value="[instant]"/><!-- 0..1 When the bundle was assembled -->
 <total value="[unsignedInt]"/><!-- ?? 0..1 If search, the total number of matches -->
 <link>  <!-- 0..* Links related to this Bundle -->
  <relation value="[string]"/><!-- 1..1 See http://www.iana.org/assignments/link-relations/link-relations.xhtml#link-relations-1 -->
  <url value="[uri]"/><!-- 1..1 Reference details for the link -->
 </link>
 <entry>  <!-- 0..* Entry in the bundle - will have a resource or information -->
  <link><!-- 0..* Content as for Bundle.link Links related to this entry --></link>
  <fullUrl value="[uri]"/><!-- 0..1 URI for resource (Absolute URL server address or URI for UUID/OID) -->
  <resource><!-- 0..1 Resource A resource in the bundle --></resource>
  <search>  <!-- ?? 0..1 Search related information -->
   <mode value="[code]"/><!-- 0..1 match | include | outcome - why this is in the result set -->
   <score value="[decimal]"/><!-- 0..1 Search ranking (between 0 and 1) -->
  </search>
  <request>  <!-- ?? 0..1 Additional execution information (transaction/batch/history) -->
   <method value="[code]"/><!-- 1..1 GET | HEAD | POST | PUT | DELETE | PATCH -->
   <url value="[uri]"/><!-- 1..1 URL for HTTP equivalent of this entry -->
   <ifNoneMatch value="[string]"/><!-- 0..1 For managing cache currency -->
   <ifModifiedSince value="[instant]"/><!-- 0..1 For managing cache currency -->
   <ifMatch value="[string]"/><!-- 0..1 For managing update contention -->
   <ifNoneExist value="[string]"/><!-- 0..1 For conditional creates -->
  </request>
  <response>  <!-- ?? 0..1 Results of execution (transaction/batch/history) -->
   <status value="[string]"/><!-- 1..1 Status response code (text optional) -->
   <location value="[uri]"/><!-- 0..1 The location (if the operation returns a location) -->
   <etag value="[string]"/><!-- 0..1 The Etag for the resource (if relevant) -->
   <lastModified value="[instant]"/><!-- 0..1 Server's date time modified -->
   <outcome><!-- 0..1 Resource OperationOutcome with hints and warnings (for batch/transaction) --></outcome>
  </response>
 </entry>
 <signature><!-- 0..1 Signature Digital Signature --></signature>
</Bundle>

JSON Template

{doco
  "resourceType" : "Bundle",
  // from Resource: id, meta, implicitRules, and language
  "identifier" : { Identifier }, // Persistent identifier for the bundle
  "type" : "<code>", // R!  document | message | transaction | transaction-response | batch | batch-response | history | searchset | collection
  "timestamp" : "<instant>", // When the bundle was assembled
  "total" : "<unsignedInt>", // C? If search, the total number of matches
  "link" : [{ // Links related to this Bundle
    "relation" : "<string>", // R!  See http://www.iana.org/assignments/link-relations/link-relations.xhtml#link-relations-1
    "url" : "<uri>" // R!  Reference details for the link
  }],
  "entry" : [{ // Entry in the bundle - will have a resource or information
    "link" : [{ Content as for Bundle.link }], // Links related to this entry
    "fullUrl" : "<uri>", // URI for resource (Absolute URL server address or URI for UUID/OID)
    "resource" : { Resource }, // A resource in the bundle
    "search" : { // C? Search related information
      "mode" : "<code>", // match | include | outcome - why this is in the result set
      "score" : <decimal> // Search ranking (between 0 and 1)
    },
    "request" : { // C? Additional execution information (transaction/batch/history)
      "method" : "<code>", // R!  GET | HEAD | POST | PUT | DELETE | PATCH
      "url" : "<uri>", // R!  URL for HTTP equivalent of this entry
      "ifNoneMatch" : "<string>", // For managing cache currency
      "ifModifiedSince" : "<instant>", // For managing cache currency
      "ifMatch" : "<string>", // For managing update contention
      "ifNoneExist" : "<string>" // For conditional creates
    },
    "response" : { // C? Results of execution (transaction/batch/history)
      "status" : "<string>", // R!  Status response code (text optional)
      "location" : "<uri>", // The location (if the operation returns a location)
      "etag" : "<string>", // The Etag for the resource (if relevant)
      "lastModified" : "<instant>", // Server's date time modified
      "outcome" : { Resource } // OperationOutcome with hints and warnings (for batch/transaction)
    }
  }],
  "signature" : { Signature } // Digital Signature
}

Turtle Template

@prefix fhir: <http://hl7.org/fhir/> .doco


[ a fhir:Bundle;
  fhir:nodeRole fhir:treeRoot; # if this is the parser root

  # from Resource: .id, .meta, .implicitRules, and .language
  fhir:Bundle.identifier [ Identifier ]; # 0..1 Persistent identifier for the bundle
  fhir:Bundle.type [ code ]; # 1..1 document | message | transaction | transaction-response | batch | batch-response | history | searchset | collection
  fhir:Bundle.timestamp [ instant ]; # 0..1 When the bundle was assembled
  fhir:Bundle.total [ unsignedInt ]; # 0..1 If search, the total number of matches
  fhir:Bundle.link [ # 0..* Links related to this Bundle
    fhir:Bundle.link.relation [ string ]; # 1..1 See http://www.iana.org/assignments/link-relations/link-relations.xhtml#link-relations-1
    fhir:Bundle.link.url [ uri ]; # 1..1 Reference details for the link
  ], ...;
  fhir:Bundle.entry [ # 0..* Entry in the bundle - will have a resource or information
    fhir:Bundle.entry.link [ See Bundle.link ], ... ; # 0..* Links related to this entry
    fhir:Bundle.entry.fullUrl [ uri ]; # 0..1 URI for resource (Absolute URL server address or URI for UUID/OID)
    fhir:Bundle.entry.resource [ Resource ]; # 0..1 A resource in the bundle
    fhir:Bundle.entry.search [ # 0..1 Search related information
      fhir:Bundle.entry.search.mode [ code ]; # 0..1 match | include | outcome - why this is in the result set
      fhir:Bundle.entry.search.score [ decimal ]; # 0..1 Search ranking (between 0 and 1)
    ];
    fhir:Bundle.entry.request [ # 0..1 Additional execution information (transaction/batch/history)
      fhir:Bundle.entry.request.method [ code ]; # 1..1 GET | HEAD | POST | PUT | DELETE | PATCH
      fhir:Bundle.entry.request.url [ uri ]; # 1..1 URL for HTTP equivalent of this entry
      fhir:Bundle.entry.request.ifNoneMatch [ string ]; # 0..1 For managing cache currency
      fhir:Bundle.entry.request.ifModifiedSince [ instant ]; # 0..1 For managing cache currency
      fhir:Bundle.entry.request.ifMatch [ string ]; # 0..1 For managing update contention
      fhir:Bundle.entry.request.ifNoneExist [ string ]; # 0..1 For conditional creates
    ];
    fhir:Bundle.entry.response [ # 0..1 Results of execution (transaction/batch/history)
      fhir:Bundle.entry.response.status [ string ]; # 1..1 Status response code (text optional)
      fhir:Bundle.entry.response.location [ uri ]; # 0..1 The location (if the operation returns a location)
      fhir:Bundle.entry.response.etag [ string ]; # 0..1 The Etag for the resource (if relevant)
      fhir:Bundle.entry.response.lastModified [ instant ]; # 0..1 Server's date time modified
      fhir:Bundle.entry.response.outcome [ Resource ]; # 0..1 OperationOutcome with hints and warnings (for batch/transaction)
    ];
  ], ...;
  fhir:Bundle.signature [ Signature ]; # 0..1 Digital Signature
]

Changes since R3

Bundle
Bundle.timestamp
  • Added Element

See the Full Difference for further information

This analysis is available as XML or JSON.

See R3 <--> R4 Conversion Maps (status = 28 tests that all execute ok. 28 fail round-trip testing and 28 r3 resources are invalid (0 errors).)

Structure

NameFlagsCard.TypeDescription & Constraintsdoco
.. Bundle ΣINResourceContains a collection of resources
+ Rule: total only when a search or history
+ Rule: entry.search only when a search
+ Rule: entry.request mandatory for batch/transaction/history, otherwise prohibited
+ Rule: entry.response mandatory for batch-response/transaction-response/history, otherwise prohibited
+ Rule: FullUrl must be unique in a bundle, or else entries with the same fullUrl must have different meta.versionId
+ Rule: A document must have an identifier with a system and a value
+ Rule: A document must have a date
+ Rule: A document must have a Composition as the first resource
+ Rule: A message must have a MessageHeader as the first resource
Elements defined in Ancestors: id, meta, implicitRules, language
... identifier Σ0..1IdentifierPersistent identifier for the bundle
... type Σ1..1codedocument | message | transaction | transaction-response | batch | batch-response | history | searchset | collection
BundleType (Required)
... timestamp Σ0..1instantWhen the bundle was assembled
... total ΣI0..1unsignedIntIf search, the total number of matches
... link Σ0..*BackboneElementLinks related to this Bundle
.... relation Σ1..1stringSee http://www.iana.org/assignments/link-relations/link-relations.xhtml#link-relations-1
.... url Σ1..1uriReference details for the link
... entry ΣI0..*BackboneElementEntry in the bundle - will have a resource or information
+ Rule: must be a resource unless there's a request or response
+ Rule: fullUrl cannot be a version specific reference
This repeating element order: For bundles of type 'document' and 'message', the first resource is special (must be Composition or MessageHeader respectively). For all bundles, the meaning of the order of entries depends on the bundle type
.... link Σ0..*see linkLinks related to this entry
.... fullUrl Σ0..1uriURI for resource (Absolute URL server address or URI for UUID/OID)
.... resource Σ0..1ResourceA resource in the bundle
.... search ΣI0..1BackboneElementSearch related information
..... mode Σ0..1codematch | include | outcome - why this is in the result set
SearchEntryMode (Required)
..... score Σ0..1decimalSearch ranking (between 0 and 1)
.... request ΣI0..1BackboneElementAdditional execution information (transaction/batch/history)
..... method Σ1..1codeGET | HEAD | POST | PUT | DELETE | PATCH
HTTPVerb (Required)
..... url Σ1..1uriURL for HTTP equivalent of this entry
..... ifNoneMatch Σ0..1stringFor managing cache currency
..... ifModifiedSince Σ0..1instantFor managing cache currency
..... ifMatch Σ0..1stringFor managing update contention
..... ifNoneExist Σ0..1stringFor conditional creates
.... response ΣI0..1BackboneElementResults of execution (transaction/batch/history)
..... status Σ1..1stringStatus response code (text optional)
..... location Σ0..1uriThe location (if the operation returns a location)
..... etag Σ0..1stringThe Etag for the resource (if relevant)
..... lastModified Σ0..1instantServer's date time modified
..... outcome Σ0..1ResourceOperationOutcome with hints and warnings (for batch/transaction)
... signature ΣTU0..1SignatureDigital Signature

doco Documentation for this format

UML Diagram (Legend)

Bundle (Resource)A persistent identifier for the bundle that won't change as a bundle is copied from server to serveridentifier : Identifier [0..1]Indicates the purpose of this bundle - how it is intended to be usedtype : code [1..1] « Indicates the purpose of a bundle - how it is intended to be used. (Strength=Required)BundleType! »The date/time that the bundle was assembled - i.e. when the resources were placed in the bundletimestamp : instant [0..1]If a set of search matches, this is the total number of entries of type 'match' across all pages in the search. It does not include search.mode = 'include' or 'outcome' entries and it does not provide a count of the number of entries in the Bundletotal : unsignedInt [0..1]Digital Signature - base64 encoded. XML-DSig or a JWTsignature : Signature [0..1]LinkA name which details the functional use for this link - see [http://www.iana.org/assignments/link-relations/link-relations.xhtml#link-relations-1](http://www.iana.org/assignments/link-relations/link-relations.xhtml#link-relations-1)relation : string [1..1]The reference details for the linkurl : uri [1..1]EntryThe Absolute URL for the resource. The fullUrl SHALL NOT disagree with the id in the resource - i.e. if the fullUrl is not a urn:uuid, the URL shall be version-independent URL consistent with the Resource.id. The fullUrl is a version independent reference to the resource. The fullUrl element SHALL have a value except that: * fullUrl can be empty on a POST (although it does not need to when specifying a temporary id for reference in the bundle) * Results from operations might involve resources that are not identifiedfullUrl : uri [0..1]The Resource for the entry. The purpose/meaning of the resource is determined by the Bundle.typeresource : Resource [0..1]SearchWhy this entry is in the result set - whether it's included as a match or because of an _include requirement, or to convey information or warning information about the search processmode : code [0..1] « Why an entry is in the result set - whether it's included as a match or because of an _include requirement, or to convey information or warning information about the search process. (Strength=Required)SearchEntryMode! »When searching, the server's search ranking score for the entryscore : decimal [0..1]RequestIn a transaction or batch, this is the HTTP action to be executed for this entry. In a history bundle, this indicates the HTTP action that occurredmethod : code [1..1] « HTTP verbs (in the HTTP command line). See [HTTP rfc](https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7231) for details. (Strength=Required)HTTPVerb! »The URL for this entry, relative to the root (the address to which the request is posted)url : uri [1..1]If the ETag values match, return a 304 Not Modified status. See the API documentation for ["Conditional Read"](http.html#cread)ifNoneMatch : string [0..1]Only perform the operation if the last updated date matches. See the API documentation for ["Conditional Read"](http.html#cread)ifModifiedSince : instant [0..1]Only perform the operation if the Etag value matches. For more information, see the API section ["Managing Resource Contention"](http.html#concurrency)ifMatch : string [0..1]Instruct the server not to perform the create if a specified resource already exists. For further information, see the API documentation for ["Conditional Create"](http.html#ccreate). This is just the query portion of the URL - what follows the "?" (not including the "?")ifNoneExist : string [0..1]ResponseThe status code returned by processing this entry. The status SHALL start with a 3 digit HTTP code (e.g. 404) and may contain the standard HTTP description associated with the status codestatus : string [1..1]The location header created by processing this operation, populated if the operation returns a locationlocation : uri [0..1]The Etag for the resource, if the operation for the entry produced a versioned resource (see [Resource Metadata and Versioning](http.html#versioning) and [Managing Resource Contention](http.html#concurrency))etag : string [0..1]The date/time that the resource was modified on the serverlastModified : instant [0..1]An OperationOutcome containing hints and warnings produced as part of processing this entry in a batch or transactionoutcome : Resource [0..1]A series of links that provide context to this bundlelink[0..*]A series of links that provide context to this entrylink[0..*]Information about the search process that lead to the creation of this entrysearch[0..1]Additional information about how this entry should be processed as part of a transaction or batch. For history, it shows how the entry was processed to create the version contained in the entryrequest[0..1]Indicates the results of processing the corresponding 'request' entry in the batch or transaction being responded to or what the results of an operation where when returning historyresponse[0..1]An entry in a bundle resource - will either contain a resource or information about a resource (transactions and history only)entry[0..*]

XML Template

<Bundle xmlns="http://hl7.org/fhir"> doco
 <!-- from Resource: id, meta, implicitRules, and language -->
 <identifier><!-- 0..1 Identifier Persistent identifier for the bundle --></identifier>
 <type value="[code]"/><!-- 1..1 document | message | transaction | transaction-response | batch | batch-response | history | searchset | collection -->
 <timestamp value="[instant]"/><!-- 0..1 When the bundle was assembled -->
 <total value="[unsignedInt]"/><!-- ?? 0..1 If search, the total number of matches -->
 <link>  <!-- 0..* Links related to this Bundle -->
  <relation value="[string]"/><!-- 1..1 See http://www.iana.org/assignments/link-relations/link-relations.xhtml#link-relations-1 -->
  <url value="[uri]"/><!-- 1..1 Reference details for the link -->
 </link>
 <entry>  <!-- 0..* Entry in the bundle - will have a resource or information -->
  <link><!-- 0..* Content as for Bundle.link Links related to this entry --></link>
  <fullUrl value="[uri]"/><!-- 0..1 URI for resource (Absolute URL server address or URI for UUID/OID) -->
  <resource><!-- 0..1 Resource A resource in the bundle --></resource>
  <search>  <!-- ?? 0..1 Search related information -->
   <mode value="[code]"/><!-- 0..1 match | include | outcome - why this is in the result set -->
   <score value="[decimal]"/><!-- 0..1 Search ranking (between 0 and 1) -->
  </search>
  <request>  <!-- ?? 0..1 Additional execution information (transaction/batch/history) -->
   <method value="[code]"/><!-- 1..1 GET | HEAD | POST | PUT | DELETE | PATCH -->
   <url value="[uri]"/><!-- 1..1 URL for HTTP equivalent of this entry -->
   <ifNoneMatch value="[string]"/><!-- 0..1 For managing cache currency -->
   <ifModifiedSince value="[instant]"/><!-- 0..1 For managing cache currency -->
   <ifMatch value="[string]"/><!-- 0..1 For managing update contention -->
   <ifNoneExist value="[string]"/><!-- 0..1 For conditional creates -->
  </request>
  <response>  <!-- ?? 0..1 Results of execution (transaction/batch/history) -->
   <status value="[string]"/><!-- 1..1 Status response code (text optional) -->
   <location value="[uri]"/><!-- 0..1 The location (if the operation returns a location) -->
   <etag value="[string]"/><!-- 0..1 The Etag for the resource (if relevant) -->
   <lastModified value="[instant]"/><!-- 0..1 Server's date time modified -->
   <outcome><!-- 0..1 Resource OperationOutcome with hints and warnings (for batch/transaction) --></outcome>
  </response>
 </entry>
 <signature><!-- 0..1 Signature Digital Signature --></signature>
</Bundle>

JSON Template

{doco
  "resourceType" : "Bundle",
  // from Resource: id, meta, implicitRules, and language
  "identifier" : { Identifier }, // Persistent identifier for the bundle
  "type" : "<code>", // R!  document | message | transaction | transaction-response | batch | batch-response | history | searchset | collection
  "timestamp" : "<instant>", // When the bundle was assembled
  "total" : "<unsignedInt>", // C? If search, the total number of matches
  "link" : [{ // Links related to this Bundle
    "relation" : "<string>", // R!  See http://www.iana.org/assignments/link-relations/link-relations.xhtml#link-relations-1
    "url" : "<uri>" // R!  Reference details for the link
  }],
  "entry" : [{ // Entry in the bundle - will have a resource or information
    "link" : [{ Content as for Bundle.link }], // Links related to this entry
    "fullUrl" : "<uri>", // URI for resource (Absolute URL server address or URI for UUID/OID)
    "resource" : { Resource }, // A resource in the bundle
    "search" : { // C? Search related information
      "mode" : "<code>", // match | include | outcome - why this is in the result set
      "score" : <decimal> // Search ranking (between 0 and 1)
    },
    "request" : { // C? Additional execution information (transaction/batch/history)
      "method" : "<code>", // R!  GET | HEAD | POST | PUT | DELETE | PATCH
      "url" : "<uri>", // R!  URL for HTTP equivalent of this entry
      "ifNoneMatch" : "<string>", // For managing cache currency
      "ifModifiedSince" : "<instant>", // For managing cache currency
      "ifMatch" : "<string>", // For managing update contention
      "ifNoneExist" : "<string>" // For conditional creates
    },
    "response" : { // C? Results of execution (transaction/batch/history)
      "status" : "<string>", // R!  Status response code (text optional)
      "location" : "<uri>", // The location (if the operation returns a location)
      "etag" : "<string>", // The Etag for the resource (if relevant)
      "lastModified" : "<instant>", // Server's date time modified
      "outcome" : { Resource } // OperationOutcome with hints and warnings (for batch/transaction)
    }
  }],
  "signature" : { Signature } // Digital Signature
}

Turtle Template

@prefix fhir: <http://hl7.org/fhir/> .doco


[ a fhir:Bundle;
  fhir:nodeRole fhir:treeRoot; # if this is the parser root

  # from Resource: .id, .meta, .implicitRules, and .language
  fhir:Bundle.identifier [ Identifier ]; # 0..1 Persistent identifier for the bundle
  fhir:Bundle.type [ code ]; # 1..1 document | message | transaction | transaction-response | batch | batch-response | history | searchset | collection
  fhir:Bundle.timestamp [ instant ]; # 0..1 When the bundle was assembled
  fhir:Bundle.total [ unsignedInt ]; # 0..1 If search, the total number of matches
  fhir:Bundle.link [ # 0..* Links related to this Bundle
    fhir:Bundle.link.relation [ string ]; # 1..1 See http://www.iana.org/assignments/link-relations/link-relations.xhtml#link-relations-1
    fhir:Bundle.link.url [ uri ]; # 1..1 Reference details for the link
  ], ...;
  fhir:Bundle.entry [ # 0..* Entry in the bundle - will have a resource or information
    fhir:Bundle.entry.link [ See Bundle.link ], ... ; # 0..* Links related to this entry
    fhir:Bundle.entry.fullUrl [ uri ]; # 0..1 URI for resource (Absolute URL server address or URI for UUID/OID)
    fhir:Bundle.entry.resource [ Resource ]; # 0..1 A resource in the bundle
    fhir:Bundle.entry.search [ # 0..1 Search related information
      fhir:Bundle.entry.search.mode [ code ]; # 0..1 match | include | outcome - why this is in the result set
      fhir:Bundle.entry.search.score [ decimal ]; # 0..1 Search ranking (between 0 and 1)
    ];
    fhir:Bundle.entry.request [ # 0..1 Additional execution information (transaction/batch/history)
      fhir:Bundle.entry.request.method [ code ]; # 1..1 GET | HEAD | POST | PUT | DELETE | PATCH
      fhir:Bundle.entry.request.url [ uri ]; # 1..1 URL for HTTP equivalent of this entry
      fhir:Bundle.entry.request.ifNoneMatch [ string ]; # 0..1 For managing cache currency
      fhir:Bundle.entry.request.ifModifiedSince [ instant ]; # 0..1 For managing cache currency
      fhir:Bundle.entry.request.ifMatch [ string ]; # 0..1 For managing update contention
      fhir:Bundle.entry.request.ifNoneExist [ string ]; # 0..1 For conditional creates
    ];
    fhir:Bundle.entry.response [ # 0..1 Results of execution (transaction/batch/history)
      fhir:Bundle.entry.response.status [ string ]; # 1..1 Status response code (text optional)
      fhir:Bundle.entry.response.location [ uri ]; # 0..1 The location (if the operation returns a location)
      fhir:Bundle.entry.response.etag [ string ]; # 0..1 The Etag for the resource (if relevant)
      fhir:Bundle.entry.response.lastModified [ instant ]; # 0..1 Server's date time modified
      fhir:Bundle.entry.response.outcome [ Resource ]; # 0..1 OperationOutcome with hints and warnings (for batch/transaction)
    ];
  ], ...;
  fhir:Bundle.signature [ Signature ]; # 0..1 Digital Signature
]

Changes since Release 3

Bundle
Bundle.timestamp
  • Added Element

See the Full Difference for further information

This analysis is available as XML or JSON.

See R3 <--> R4 Conversion Maps (status = 28 tests that all execute ok. 28 fail round-trip testing and 28 r3 resources are invalid (0 errors).)

 

See the Profiles & Extensions and the alternate definitions: Master Definition XML + JSON, XML Schema/Schematron + JSON Schema, ShEx (for Turtle) & the dependency analysis

PathDefinitionTypeReference
Bundle.type Indicates the purpose of a bundle - how it is intended to be used.RequiredBundleType
Bundle.entry.search.mode Why an entry is in the result set - whether it's included as a match or because of an _include requirement, or to convey information or warning information about the search process.RequiredSearchEntryMode
Bundle.entry.request.method HTTP verbs (in the HTTP command line). See [HTTP rfc](https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7231) for details.RequiredHTTPVerb

idLevelLocationDescriptionExpression
bdl-1Rule (base)total only when a search or historytotal.empty() or (type = 'searchset') or (type = 'history')
bdl-2Rule (base)entry.search only when a searchentry.search.empty() or (type = 'searchset')
bdl-3Rule (base)entry.request mandatory for batch/transaction/history, otherwise prohibitedentry.all(request.exists() = (%resource.type = 'batch' or %resource.type = 'transaction' or %resource.type = 'history'))
bdl-4Rule (base)entry.response mandatory for batch-response/transaction-response/history, otherwise prohibitedentry.all(response.exists() = (%resource.type = 'batch-response' or %resource.type = 'transaction-response' or %resource.type = 'history'))
bdl-5Rule Bundle.entrymust be a resource unless there's a request or responseresource.exists() or request.exists() or response.exists()
bdl-7Rule (base)FullUrl must be unique in a bundle, or else entries with the same fullUrl must have different meta.versionIdentry.where(fullUrl.exists()).select(fullUrl&resource.meta.versionId).isDistinct()
bdl-8Rule Bundle.entryfullUrl cannot be a version specific referencefullUrl.contains('/_history/').not()
bdl-9Rule (base)A document must have an identifier with a system and a valuetype = 'document' implies (identifier.system.exists() and identifier.value.exists())
bdl-10Rule (base)A document must have a datetype = 'document' implies (meta.lastUpdated.hasValue())
bdl-11Rule (base)A document must have a Composition as the first resourcetype = 'document' implies entry.first().resource.is(Composition)
bdl-12Rule (base)A message must have a MessageHeader as the first resourcetype = 'message' implies entry.first().resource.is(MessageHeader)
  • Conceptually, a bundle is a list of resources with some context (named links, and status on the entries)
  • Since a Bundle is itself a Resource it has the same common metadata as all resources, including profile assertions, tags, and security labels
  • Although there are no extensions on the Bundle itself, link, entry, and search/request/response can all have extensions. See Patient and Location for examples on search
  • Both Bundle.link and Bundle.entry.link are defined to support providing additional context when Bundles are used (e.g. HATEOAS ). Bundle.entry.link corresponds to links found in the HTTP header if the resource in the entry was read directly. This specification defines some specific uses of Bundle.link for searching and paging, but no specific uses for Bundle.entry.link, and no defined function in a transaction - meaning is implementation specific
  • Bundles have both .id and .identifier - see Resource Identities for further information

The content and rules for using a Bundle depend on the type of the bundle. Note that all bundle types use resource identity resolution as described below.

A document Bundle (type = "document") consists of a series of entries, the first of which is a Composition. Each entry element SHALL contain a resource. See Documents for further information.

Example

A message Bundle (type = "message") consists of a series of entries, the first of which is a MessageHeader. Each entry element SHALL contain a resource. See Messaging for further information.

Example Request and Response

A set of search results (type = "searchset") consists of a series of 0 or more entries. Each entry element SHALL contain a resource. See Search for further information.

In addition, Bundle.total may be used to return the total number of resources that match the search, and that may be returned by following the "next" link.

For each entry, a search set can also contain two specific pieces of search related information:

  • search.mode: An indication of whether the resource is in the search set because it matched the search criteria or whether it is included because another resource refers to it (e.g. by the _include parameter)
  • search.score: The server's search ranking score for the entry. Servers are not required to return a ranking score, but if they do, 1 is most relevant, and 0 is least relevant. Note: often, search results are sorted by score, but the client may specify a different sort order (see Search Relevance)

Example

A change history (type = "history") consists of a series of 0 or more entries. Each entry element SHALL contain a request element that describes the change that was made and, if the method is a POST or PUT, a resource that represents the state of the resource at the conclusion of the operation. A response element SHALL also be present so that consumers can access the location header. See History for further information.

In addition, Bundle.total may be used to return the total number of resources that are included in the change history, including those that may be returned by following the "next" link.

A transaction (type = "transaction") or batch (type = "batch") consists of a series of 0 or more entries. Each entry element SHALL contain a request element has the details of an HTTP operation that informs the system processing the transaction what to do with the entry. If the entry method is a 'PUT' or 'POST', then the entry SHALL contain a resource that becomes the body of the HTTP operation. See Transactions for further information.

Example

A transaction response (type = "transaction-response") or batch response (type="batch-response") consists of a series of 0 or more entries: 1 for each entry in the transaction or batch it is in response to. Each entry element SHALL contain a response element which indicates the outcome of the HTTP operation that the server performed for the entry.

Example

A collection (type = "collection") consists of a series of 0 or more entries. No particular use with respect to the FHIR specification is associated with this Bundle. Each entry element SHALL contain a resource.

Example

Except for transactions and batches, each entry in a Bundle must have a fullUrl which is the identity of the resource in the entry. Note that this is not a versioned reference to the resource, but its identity. Where a resource is not assigned a persistent identity that can be used in the Bundle, a UUID should be used (urn:uuid:...).

For transactions and batches, entries MAY not have fullURLs when the entry.request.method = POST, and the resource has no identity. Note that even in this case, there may still be a fullURL in a transaction on a POST so that relationships between resources can be represented (see Transactions).

A given version of a resource SHALL only appear once in each Bundle. There might, however, be multiple versions of a single resource present in a single bundle. This would be expected in Bundles of type history, and also might be necessitated by closely tracking Provenance.

Note that the meaning of an unversioned reference to a resource that appears multiple times is potentially ambiguous, though processors may have additional informaton to help resolve this (e.g. change order in a history bundle).

When processing batches and transactions, it is at server discretion how to behave if multiple versions of a single resource are present.

The Bundle resource is a packaging construct that has one of more entries that are other kinds of resources. Those resources themselves have references to other resources - e.g. an Observation that refers to a Patient. The referenced resources may also be found in the Bundle. For example, the system that constructed the Bundle may have included both the Observation and the Patient. The content of the references between resources doesn't change because of the bundle.

This section documents a method that resolves references correctly within a bundle. Note that this method does not define any new semantics; resolution is based on the way resource identity and resource references work.

Applications reading a Bundle should always look for a resource by its identity in the bundle first before trying to access it by its URL.

How to resolve a reference in a Bundle:

  • If the reference is not an absolute reference, convert it to an absolute URL:
    • if the reference has the format [type]/[id], and
    • if the fullUrl for the bundle entry containing the resource is a a RESTful one (see the RESTful URL regex)
      • extract the [root] from the fullUrl, and append the reference (type/id) to it
      • then try to resolve within the bundle as for a RESTful URL reference.
      • If no resolution is possible, then the reference has no defined meaning within this specification
    • else no resolution is possible and the reference has no defined meaning within this specification
  • else
    • Look for an entry with a fullUrl that matches the URI in the reference
    • if no match is found, and the URI is a URL that can be resolved (e.g. if an http: URL), try accessing it directly)

Note, in addition, that a reference may be by identifier, and if it is, and there is no URL, it may be resolved by scanning the ids in the bundle. Note also that transactions may contain conditional references that must be resolved by the server before processing the matches.

If the reference is version specific (either relative or absolute), then remove the version from the URL before matching fullUrl, and then match the version based on Resource.meta.versionId. Note that the rules for resolving references in contained resources are the same as those for resolving resources in the resource that contains the contained resource.

If multiple matches are found, it is ambiguous which is correct. Applications MAY return an error or take some other action as they deem appropriate.

There is an example Bundle that demonstrates these rules.

The Bundle resource type has an end-point like all most other resources. This end-point serves the usual interactions. Bundles are treated as static resources on the /Bundle end-point (i.e. when a batch, transaction, or message is POSTed to /Bundle, it is stored as is, and the content is not processed as batch, transaction, or message - instead, they are processed like normal resource, with indexing / auditing etc. Performing a GET /Bundle/[location] will return the same resource.

The Bundle end point does have two special search parameters - composition and message, which allow for chained search into the first (special) entries in document and message resources.

Search parameters for this resource. The common parameters also apply. See Searching for more information about searching in REST, messaging, and services.

NameTypeDescriptionExpressionIn Common
compositionreferenceThe first resource in the bundle, if the bundle type is "document" - this is a composition, and this parameter provides access to search its contentsBundle.entry[0].resource
(Composition)
identifiertokenPersistent identifier for the bundleBundle.identifier
messagereferenceThe first resource in the bundle, if the bundle type is "message" - this is a message header, and this parameter provides access to search its contentsBundle.entry[0].resource
(MessageHeader)
timestampdateWhen the bundle was assembledBundle.timestamp
typetokendocument | message | transaction | transaction-response | batch | batch-response | history | searchset | collectionBundle.type