International Patient Access
1.0.0-preview - STU1 International flag

International Patient Access, published by HL7 International - Patient Care Work Group. This is not an authorized publication; it is the continuous build for version 1.0.0-preview). This version is based on the current content of https://github.com/HL7/fhir-ipa/ and changes regularly. See the Directory of published versions

Resource Profile: IPA-Observation

Official URL: http://hl7.org/fhir/uv/ipa/StructureDefinition/ipa-observation Version: 1.0.0-preview
Active as of 2022-08-02 Computable Name: IPAObservation

Copyright/Legal: Used by permission of HL7 International all rights reserved Creative Commons License

Minimum expectations for an Observation resource when accessed via a International Patient Access API

Mandatory and Must Support Data Elements

The following data elements must always be present (in other words, mandatory resource properties with a minimum cardinality of 1) or must be supported (Must Support definition). Servers cannot restrict access to mandatory elements when authorizing an application. However, servers may choose to provide additional information or may be required to do so by national or other profiles that apply to the server’s context.

Each Observation SHALL have:

  • a status
  • a code identifying the type of observation
  • a person

Applications must also support:

  • one or more category codes used to group observations
  • clinically relevant time/time-period for the observation
  • the observation result value
  • a reason why the result value is missing

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Profile Specific Implementation Rules and Guidance

Note that the base FHIR specification defines a profile on the Observation resource used to specifically represent vitals signs. To adhere to IPA as well as the base FHIR specifications, implementers SHALL support the FHIR Core Vitals Signs profile.

The IPA-Observation profile defined here SHALL be used to represent Observations other than vital signs such as:

  • Laboratory data (for example, blood glucose)
  • Imaging or clinical test results (for example, bone density or electrocardiogram (ECG))
  • Social history (for example, tobacco use or occupation data1)
  • General health status (for example, pregnancy status)

Usage:

Formal Views of Profile Content

Description of Profiles, Differentials, Snapshots and how the different presentations work.

This structure is derived from Observation

NameFlagsCard.TypeDescription & Constraintsdoco
.. Observation C0..*ObservationMeasurements and simple assertions
ipa-obs-1: If there is no component or hasMember element then either a value[x] or a data absent reason must be present
... status S1..1coderegistered | preliminary | final | amended +
... category S0..*CodeableConceptClassification of type of observation
... code S1..1CodeableConceptType of observation (code / type)
... effective[x] S0..1dateTime, Period, Timing, instantClinically relevant time/time-period for observation
... value[x] SC0..1Quantity, CodeableConcept, string, boolean, integer, Range, Ratio, SampledData, time, dateTime, PeriodActual result
... dataAbsentReason SC0..1CodeableConceptWhy the result is missing

doco Documentation for this format

Constraints

IdGradePath(s)DetailsRequirements
ipa-obs-1errorObservationIf there is no component or hasMember element then either a value[x] or a data absent reason must be present
: (component.empty() and hasMember.empty()) implies (dataAbsentReason or value)
NameFlagsCard.TypeDescription & Constraintsdoco
.. Observation C0..*ObservationMeasurements and simple assertions
ipa-obs-1: If there is no component or hasMember element then either a value[x] or a data absent reason must be present
... implicitRules ?!Σ0..1uriA set of rules under which this content was created
... modifierExtension ?!0..*ExtensionExtensions that cannot be ignored
... status ?!SΣ1..1coderegistered | preliminary | final | amended +
Binding: ObservationStatus (required): Codes providing the status of an observation.

... code SΣ1..1CodeableConceptType of observation (code / type)
Binding: LOINCCodes (example): Codes identifying names of simple observations.

... subject SΣ1..1Reference(IPA-Patient)Who and/or what the observation is about
... effective[x] SΣ0..1Clinically relevant time/time-period for observation
.... effectiveDateTimedateTime
.... effectivePeriodPeriod
.... effectiveTimingTiming
.... effectiveInstantinstant
... value[x] SΣC0..1Actual result
.... valueQuantityQuantity
.... valueCodeableConceptCodeableConcept
.... valueStringstring
.... valueBooleanboolean
.... valueIntegerinteger
.... valueRangeRange
.... valueRatioRatio
.... valueSampledDataSampledData
.... valueTimetime
.... valueDateTimedateTime
.... valuePeriodPeriod
... dataAbsentReason SC0..1CodeableConceptWhy the result is missing
Binding: DataAbsentReason (extensible): Codes specifying why the result (Observation.value[x]) is missing.


doco Documentation for this format

Terminology Bindings

PathConformanceValueSet
Observation.statusrequiredObservationStatus
Observation.categorypreferredObservationCategoryCodes
Observation.codeexampleLOINCCodes (a valid code from LOINC)
Observation.dataAbsentReasonextensibleDataAbsentReason

Constraints

IdGradePath(s)DetailsRequirements
ipa-obs-1errorObservationIf there is no component or hasMember element then either a value[x] or a data absent reason must be present
: (component.empty() and hasMember.empty()) implies (dataAbsentReason or value)
NameFlagsCard.TypeDescription & Constraintsdoco
.. Observation C0..*ObservationMeasurements and simple assertions
ipa-obs-1: If there is no component or hasMember element then either a value[x] or a data absent reason must be present
... id Σ0..1idLogical id of this artifact
... meta Σ0..1MetaMetadata about the resource
... implicitRules ?!Σ0..1uriA set of rules under which this content was created
... language 0..1codeLanguage of the resource content
Binding: CommonLanguages (preferred): A human language.

Additional BindingsPurpose
AllLanguagesMax Binding
... text 0..1NarrativeText summary of the resource, for human interpretation
... contained 0..*ResourceContained, inline Resources
... extension 0..*ExtensionAdditional content defined by implementations
... modifierExtension ?!0..*ExtensionExtensions that cannot be ignored
... identifier Σ0..*IdentifierBusiness Identifier for observation
... basedOn Σ0..*Reference(CarePlan | DeviceRequest | ImmunizationRecommendation | MedicationRequest | NutritionOrder | ServiceRequest)Fulfills plan, proposal or order
... partOf Σ0..*Reference(MedicationAdministration | MedicationDispense | MedicationStatement | Procedure | Immunization | ImagingStudy)Part of referenced event
... status ?!SΣ1..1coderegistered | preliminary | final | amended +
Binding: ObservationStatus (required): Codes providing the status of an observation.

... category S0..*CodeableConceptClassification of type of observation
Binding: ObservationCategoryCodes (preferred): Codes for high level observation categories.


... code SΣ1..1CodeableConceptType of observation (code / type)
Binding: LOINCCodes (example): Codes identifying names of simple observations.

... subject SΣ1..1Reference(IPA-Patient)Who and/or what the observation is about
... focus ΣTU0..*Reference(Resource)What the observation is about, when it is not about the subject of record
... encounter Σ0..1Reference(Encounter)Healthcare event during which this observation is made
... effective[x] SΣ0..1Clinically relevant time/time-period for observation
.... effectiveDateTimedateTime
.... effectivePeriodPeriod
.... effectiveTimingTiming
.... effectiveInstantinstant
... issued Σ0..1instantDate/Time this version was made available
... performer Σ0..*Reference(Practitioner | PractitionerRole | Organization | CareTeam | Patient | RelatedPerson)Who is responsible for the observation
... value[x] SΣC0..1Actual result
.... valueQuantityQuantity
.... valueCodeableConceptCodeableConcept
.... valueStringstring
.... valueBooleanboolean
.... valueIntegerinteger
.... valueRangeRange
.... valueRatioRatio
.... valueSampledDataSampledData
.... valueTimetime
.... valueDateTimedateTime
.... valuePeriodPeriod
... dataAbsentReason SC0..1CodeableConceptWhy the result is missing
Binding: DataAbsentReason (extensible): Codes specifying why the result (Observation.value[x]) is missing.

... interpretation 0..*CodeableConceptHigh, low, normal, etc.
Binding: ObservationInterpretationCodes (extensible): Codes identifying interpretations of observations.


... note 0..*AnnotationComments about the observation
... bodySite 0..1CodeableConceptObserved body part
Binding: SNOMEDCTBodyStructures (example): Codes describing anatomical locations. May include laterality.

... method 0..1CodeableConceptHow it was done
Binding: ObservationMethods (example): Methods for simple observations.

... specimen 0..1Reference(Specimen)Specimen used for this observation
... device 0..1Reference(Device | DeviceMetric)(Measurement) Device
... referenceRange C0..*BackboneElementProvides guide for interpretation
.... id 0..1stringUnique id for inter-element referencing
.... extension 0..*ExtensionAdditional content defined by implementations
.... modifierExtension ?!Σ0..*ExtensionExtensions that cannot be ignored even if unrecognized
.... low C0..1SimpleQuantityLow Range, if relevant
.... high C0..1SimpleQuantityHigh Range, if relevant
.... type 0..1CodeableConceptReference range qualifier
Binding: ObservationReferenceRangeMeaningCodes (preferred): Code for the meaning of a reference range.

.... appliesTo 0..*CodeableConceptReference range population
Binding: ObservationReferenceRangeAppliesToCodes (example): Codes identifying the population the reference range applies to.


.... age 0..1RangeApplicable age range, if relevant
.... text 0..1stringText based reference range in an observation
... hasMember Σ0..*Reference(Observation | QuestionnaireResponse | MolecularSequence)Related resource that belongs to the Observation group
... derivedFrom Σ0..*Reference(DocumentReference | ImagingStudy | Media | QuestionnaireResponse | Observation | MolecularSequence)Related measurements the observation is made from
... component Σ0..*BackboneElementComponent results
.... id 0..1stringUnique id for inter-element referencing
.... extension 0..*ExtensionAdditional content defined by implementations
.... modifierExtension ?!Σ0..*ExtensionExtensions that cannot be ignored even if unrecognized
.... code Σ1..1CodeableConceptType of component observation (code / type)
Binding: LOINCCodes (example): Codes identifying names of simple observations.

.... value[x] Σ0..1Actual component result
..... valueQuantityQuantity
..... valueCodeableConceptCodeableConcept
..... valueStringstring
..... valueBooleanboolean
..... valueIntegerinteger
..... valueRangeRange
..... valueRatioRatio
..... valueSampledDataSampledData
..... valueTimetime
..... valueDateTimedateTime
..... valuePeriodPeriod
.... dataAbsentReason C0..1CodeableConceptWhy the component result is missing
Binding: DataAbsentReason (extensible): Codes specifying why the result (Observation.value[x]) is missing.

.... interpretation 0..*CodeableConceptHigh, low, normal, etc.
Binding: ObservationInterpretationCodes (extensible): Codes identifying interpretations of observations.


.... referenceRange 0..*See referenceRange (Observation)Provides guide for interpretation of component result

doco Documentation for this format

Terminology Bindings

PathConformanceValueSet
Observation.languagepreferredCommonLanguages
Additional Bindings Purpose
AllLanguages Max Binding
Observation.statusrequiredObservationStatus
Observation.categorypreferredObservationCategoryCodes
Observation.codeexampleLOINCCodes (a valid code from LOINC)
Observation.dataAbsentReasonextensibleDataAbsentReason
Observation.interpretationextensibleObservationInterpretationCodes
Observation.bodySiteexampleSNOMEDCTBodyStructures
Observation.methodexampleObservationMethods
Observation.referenceRange.typepreferredObservationReferenceRangeMeaningCodes
Observation.referenceRange.appliesToexampleObservationReferenceRangeAppliesToCodes
Observation.component.codeexampleLOINCCodes (a valid code from LOINC)
Observation.component.dataAbsentReasonextensibleDataAbsentReason
Observation.component.interpretationextensibleObservationInterpretationCodes

This structure is derived from Observation

Summary

Mandatory: 1 element
Must-Support: 7 elements

Structures

This structure refers to these other structures:

Differential View

This structure is derived from Observation

NameFlagsCard.TypeDescription & Constraintsdoco
.. Observation C0..*ObservationMeasurements and simple assertions
ipa-obs-1: If there is no component or hasMember element then either a value[x] or a data absent reason must be present
... status S1..1coderegistered | preliminary | final | amended +
... category S0..*CodeableConceptClassification of type of observation
... code S1..1CodeableConceptType of observation (code / type)
... effective[x] S0..1dateTime, Period, Timing, instantClinically relevant time/time-period for observation
... value[x] SC0..1Quantity, CodeableConcept, string, boolean, integer, Range, Ratio, SampledData, time, dateTime, PeriodActual result
... dataAbsentReason SC0..1CodeableConceptWhy the result is missing

doco Documentation for this format

Constraints

IdGradePath(s)DetailsRequirements
ipa-obs-1errorObservationIf there is no component or hasMember element then either a value[x] or a data absent reason must be present
: (component.empty() and hasMember.empty()) implies (dataAbsentReason or value)

Key Elements View

NameFlagsCard.TypeDescription & Constraintsdoco
.. Observation C0..*ObservationMeasurements and simple assertions
ipa-obs-1: If there is no component or hasMember element then either a value[x] or a data absent reason must be present
... implicitRules ?!Σ0..1uriA set of rules under which this content was created
... modifierExtension ?!0..*ExtensionExtensions that cannot be ignored
... status ?!SΣ1..1coderegistered | preliminary | final | amended +
Binding: ObservationStatus (required): Codes providing the status of an observation.

... code SΣ1..1CodeableConceptType of observation (code / type)
Binding: LOINCCodes (example): Codes identifying names of simple observations.

... subject SΣ1..1Reference(IPA-Patient)Who and/or what the observation is about
... effective[x] SΣ0..1Clinically relevant time/time-period for observation
.... effectiveDateTimedateTime
.... effectivePeriodPeriod
.... effectiveTimingTiming
.... effectiveInstantinstant
... value[x] SΣC0..1Actual result
.... valueQuantityQuantity
.... valueCodeableConceptCodeableConcept
.... valueStringstring
.... valueBooleanboolean
.... valueIntegerinteger
.... valueRangeRange
.... valueRatioRatio
.... valueSampledDataSampledData
.... valueTimetime
.... valueDateTimedateTime
.... valuePeriodPeriod
... dataAbsentReason SC0..1CodeableConceptWhy the result is missing
Binding: DataAbsentReason (extensible): Codes specifying why the result (Observation.value[x]) is missing.


doco Documentation for this format

Terminology Bindings

PathConformanceValueSet
Observation.statusrequiredObservationStatus
Observation.categorypreferredObservationCategoryCodes
Observation.codeexampleLOINCCodes (a valid code from LOINC)
Observation.dataAbsentReasonextensibleDataAbsentReason

Constraints

IdGradePath(s)DetailsRequirements
ipa-obs-1errorObservationIf there is no component or hasMember element then either a value[x] or a data absent reason must be present
: (component.empty() and hasMember.empty()) implies (dataAbsentReason or value)

Snapshot View

NameFlagsCard.TypeDescription & Constraintsdoco
.. Observation C0..*ObservationMeasurements and simple assertions
ipa-obs-1: If there is no component or hasMember element then either a value[x] or a data absent reason must be present
... id Σ0..1idLogical id of this artifact
... meta Σ0..1MetaMetadata about the resource
... implicitRules ?!Σ0..1uriA set of rules under which this content was created
... language 0..1codeLanguage of the resource content
Binding: CommonLanguages (preferred): A human language.

Additional BindingsPurpose
AllLanguagesMax Binding
... text 0..1NarrativeText summary of the resource, for human interpretation
... contained 0..*ResourceContained, inline Resources
... extension 0..*ExtensionAdditional content defined by implementations
... modifierExtension ?!0..*ExtensionExtensions that cannot be ignored
... identifier Σ0..*IdentifierBusiness Identifier for observation
... basedOn Σ0..*Reference(CarePlan | DeviceRequest | ImmunizationRecommendation | MedicationRequest | NutritionOrder | ServiceRequest)Fulfills plan, proposal or order
... partOf Σ0..*Reference(MedicationAdministration | MedicationDispense | MedicationStatement | Procedure | Immunization | ImagingStudy)Part of referenced event
... status ?!SΣ1..1coderegistered | preliminary | final | amended +
Binding: ObservationStatus (required): Codes providing the status of an observation.

... category S0..*CodeableConceptClassification of type of observation
Binding: ObservationCategoryCodes (preferred): Codes for high level observation categories.


... code SΣ1..1CodeableConceptType of observation (code / type)
Binding: LOINCCodes (example): Codes identifying names of simple observations.

... subject SΣ1..1Reference(IPA-Patient)Who and/or what the observation is about
... focus ΣTU0..*Reference(Resource)What the observation is about, when it is not about the subject of record
... encounter Σ0..1Reference(Encounter)Healthcare event during which this observation is made
... effective[x] SΣ0..1Clinically relevant time/time-period for observation
.... effectiveDateTimedateTime
.... effectivePeriodPeriod
.... effectiveTimingTiming
.... effectiveInstantinstant
... issued Σ0..1instantDate/Time this version was made available
... performer Σ0..*Reference(Practitioner | PractitionerRole | Organization | CareTeam | Patient | RelatedPerson)Who is responsible for the observation
... value[x] SΣC0..1Actual result
.... valueQuantityQuantity
.... valueCodeableConceptCodeableConcept
.... valueStringstring
.... valueBooleanboolean
.... valueIntegerinteger
.... valueRangeRange
.... valueRatioRatio
.... valueSampledDataSampledData
.... valueTimetime
.... valueDateTimedateTime
.... valuePeriodPeriod
... dataAbsentReason SC0..1CodeableConceptWhy the result is missing
Binding: DataAbsentReason (extensible): Codes specifying why the result (Observation.value[x]) is missing.

... interpretation 0..*CodeableConceptHigh, low, normal, etc.
Binding: ObservationInterpretationCodes (extensible): Codes identifying interpretations of observations.


... note 0..*AnnotationComments about the observation
... bodySite 0..1CodeableConceptObserved body part
Binding: SNOMEDCTBodyStructures (example): Codes describing anatomical locations. May include laterality.

... method 0..1CodeableConceptHow it was done
Binding: ObservationMethods (example): Methods for simple observations.

... specimen 0..1Reference(Specimen)Specimen used for this observation
... device 0..1Reference(Device | DeviceMetric)(Measurement) Device
... referenceRange C0..*BackboneElementProvides guide for interpretation
.... id 0..1stringUnique id for inter-element referencing
.... extension 0..*ExtensionAdditional content defined by implementations
.... modifierExtension ?!Σ0..*ExtensionExtensions that cannot be ignored even if unrecognized
.... low C0..1SimpleQuantityLow Range, if relevant
.... high C0..1SimpleQuantityHigh Range, if relevant
.... type 0..1CodeableConceptReference range qualifier
Binding: ObservationReferenceRangeMeaningCodes (preferred): Code for the meaning of a reference range.

.... appliesTo 0..*CodeableConceptReference range population
Binding: ObservationReferenceRangeAppliesToCodes (example): Codes identifying the population the reference range applies to.


.... age 0..1RangeApplicable age range, if relevant
.... text 0..1stringText based reference range in an observation
... hasMember Σ0..*Reference(Observation | QuestionnaireResponse | MolecularSequence)Related resource that belongs to the Observation group
... derivedFrom Σ0..*Reference(DocumentReference | ImagingStudy | Media | QuestionnaireResponse | Observation | MolecularSequence)Related measurements the observation is made from
... component Σ0..*BackboneElementComponent results
.... id 0..1stringUnique id for inter-element referencing
.... extension 0..*ExtensionAdditional content defined by implementations
.... modifierExtension ?!Σ0..*ExtensionExtensions that cannot be ignored even if unrecognized
.... code Σ1..1CodeableConceptType of component observation (code / type)
Binding: LOINCCodes (example): Codes identifying names of simple observations.

.... value[x] Σ0..1Actual component result
..... valueQuantityQuantity
..... valueCodeableConceptCodeableConcept
..... valueStringstring
..... valueBooleanboolean
..... valueIntegerinteger
..... valueRangeRange
..... valueRatioRatio
..... valueSampledDataSampledData
..... valueTimetime
..... valueDateTimedateTime
..... valuePeriodPeriod
.... dataAbsentReason C0..1CodeableConceptWhy the component result is missing
Binding: DataAbsentReason (extensible): Codes specifying why the result (Observation.value[x]) is missing.

.... interpretation 0..*CodeableConceptHigh, low, normal, etc.
Binding: ObservationInterpretationCodes (extensible): Codes identifying interpretations of observations.


.... referenceRange 0..*See referenceRange (Observation)Provides guide for interpretation of component result

doco Documentation for this format

Terminology Bindings

PathConformanceValueSet
Observation.languagepreferredCommonLanguages
Additional Bindings Purpose
AllLanguages Max Binding
Observation.statusrequiredObservationStatus
Observation.categorypreferredObservationCategoryCodes
Observation.codeexampleLOINCCodes (a valid code from LOINC)
Observation.dataAbsentReasonextensibleDataAbsentReason
Observation.interpretationextensibleObservationInterpretationCodes
Observation.bodySiteexampleSNOMEDCTBodyStructures
Observation.methodexampleObservationMethods
Observation.referenceRange.typepreferredObservationReferenceRangeMeaningCodes
Observation.referenceRange.appliesToexampleObservationReferenceRangeAppliesToCodes
Observation.component.codeexampleLOINCCodes (a valid code from LOINC)
Observation.component.dataAbsentReasonextensibleDataAbsentReason
Observation.component.interpretationextensibleObservationInterpretationCodes

This structure is derived from Observation

Summary

Mandatory: 1 element
Must-Support: 7 elements

Structures

This structure refers to these other structures:

 

Other representations of profile: CSV, Excel, Schematron

Notes: