US Core Implementation Guide
7.0.0-ballot - Ballot United States of America flag

US Core Implementation Guide, published by HL7 International / Cross-Group Projects. This guide is not an authorized publication; it is the continuous build for version 7.0.0-ballot built by the FHIR (HL7® FHIR® Standard) CI Build. This version is based on the current content of https://github.com/HL7/US-Core/ and changes regularly. See the Directory of published versions

Resource Profile: US Core Laboratory Result Observation Profile

Official URL: http://hl7.org/fhir/us/core/StructureDefinition/us-core-observation-lab Version: 7.0.0-ballot
Standards status: Trial-use Maturity Level: 3 Computable Name: USCoreLaboratoryResultObservationProfile

Copyright/Legal: Used by permission of HL7 International, all rights reserved Creative Commons License

The US Core Laboratory Result Observation Profile is based upon the US Core Observation Clinical Result Profile and, along with the US Core DiagnosticReport Profile for Laboratory Results Reporting, meets the U.S. Core Data for Interoperability (USCDI) Laboratory requirements. Laboratory results are grouped and summarized using the DiagnosticReport resource, which references Observation resources. Each Observation resource represents an individual laboratory test and result value, a “nested” panel (such as a microbial susceptibility panel) that references other observations, or rarely a laboratory test with component result values. The US Core Laboratory Result Observation Profile sets minimum expectations for the Observation resource to record, search, and fetch laboratory test results associated with a patient to promote interoperability and adoption through common implementation. It identifies which core elements, extensions, vocabularies, and value sets SHALL be present in the resource and constrains the way the elements are used when using this profile. It provides the floor for standards development for specific use cases.

Example Usage Scenarios:

The following are example usage scenarios for this profile:

  • Query for lab results belonging to a Patient
  • Record or update lab results belonging to a Patient

Mandatory and Must Support Data Elements

In addition to the Mandatory and Must Support data elements in the US Core Observation Clinical Result Profile, The following data-elements must always be present (Mandatory definition) or must be supported if the data is present in the sending system (Must Support definition). They are presented below in a simple human-readable explanation. Profile specific guidance and examples are provided as well. The Formal Views section below provides the formal summary, definitions, and terminology requirements. Note that the “Differential Table” displays elements unique to this profile and the “Key Elements Table” displays a combined view of elements for this profile and the US Core Laboratory Result Observation Profile.

Each Observation Must Have:

  1. a category code of ‘laboratory’
  2. a laboratory LOINC code, if available, which tells you what is being measured

Each Observation Must Support:

  1. a result value*
    • if the result value is a numeric quantity, a standard UCUM unit
    • if the result value is a coded quantity, a standard SNOMED CT*
  2. result interpretation
  3. result reference range
  4. a specimen type (e.g., blood, serum, urine)

* see guidance below

Profile Specific Implementation Guidance:

  • For USCDI V3+, systems are required to use SNOMED CT for coded results if the SCT code exists.
  • The specimen type can be communicated in the mandatory Observation.code (e.g., Blood Glucose), or the Must Support Observation.specimen element, or through both elements.
  • The Observation.category element provides an efficient way of restricting search on observations to a given context such as laboratory observations. Example searches are shown in the Quick Start section below. However, clients need to understand that data categorization is somewhat subjective. The categorization applied by the source may not align with the client’s expectations. Clients may find it more useful to use queries based on a specific code or set of codes or to perform additional client side filtering of query results.
  • Additional codes that translate or map to the Observation code or category codes are allowed. For example:
    • providing both a local code and LOINC code
    • providing a more specific code such as ‘chemistry’, a SNOMED CT concept, or a system-specific code.
  • Systems SHOULD support Observation.effectivePeriod to accurately represent procedure tests that are collected over a period of time (for example, a 24-Hour Urine Collection test).
  • *An Observation without a value, SHALL include a reason why the data is absent unless there are 1) component observations, or 2) reporting panel observations using Observation.hasMember.
    • For further guidance see the Observation Grouping section in FHIR Specification.
    • Systems that never provide an observation without a value are not required to support Observation.dataAbsentReason.
  • *An Observation.component without a value, SHALL include a reason why the data is absent.
    • Systems that never provide a component observation without a component value are not required to support Observation.component.dataAbsentReason.
  • See the General Guidance page for further guidance on using SNOMED and UCUM.
  • See the LOINC scale type to FHIR data type mapping for guidance on which Observation.value[x] data type to use based on the LOINC Type of Scale.

Usage:

Formal Views of Profile Content

Description of Profiles, Differentials, Snapshots and how the different presentations work.

This structure is derived from USCoreObservationClinicalResultProfile

NameFlagsCard.TypeDescription & Constraintsdoco
.. Observation USCoreObservationClinicalResultProfile
... category:us-core S1..1CodeableConceptClassification of type of observation
Required Pattern: At least the following
.... coding1..*CodingCode defined by a terminology system
Fixed Value: (complex)
..... system1..1uriIdentity of the terminology system
Fixed Value: http://terminology.hl7.org/CodeSystem/observation-category
..... code1..1codeSymbol in syntax defined by the system
Fixed Value: laboratory
... code S1..1CodeableConceptLaboratory Test Name
Binding: US Core Laboratory Test Codes (extensible): Laboratory LOINC Codes

... value[x] SC0..1Result Value
us-core-4: SHOULD use Snomed CT for coded Results
.... valueQuantityQuantity S
.... valueCodeableConceptCodeableConcept S
.... valueStringstring S
.... valueBooleanboolean
.... valueIntegerinteger
.... valueRangeRange
.... valueRatioRatio
.... valueSampledDataSampledData
.... valueTimetime
.... valueDateTimedateTime
.... valuePeriodPeriod
... interpretation S0..*CodeableConceptResult interpretation
Binding: ObservationInterpretationCodes (extensible): Observation Interpretation Codes

... specimen S0..1Reference(US Core Specimen Profile)Specimen used for this observation
... referenceRange S0..*BackboneElementResult reference range

doco Documentation for this format

Terminology Bindings (Differential)

PathConformanceValueSet
Observation.codeextensibleUSCoreLaboratoryTestCodes
Observation.interpretationextensibleObservationInterpretationCodes

Constraints

IdGradePath(s)DetailsRequirements
us-core-4best practiceObservation.value[x]SHOULD use Snomed CT for coded Results
: ofType(CodeableConcept).coding.system.empty() or (ofType(CodeableConcept).coding.system contains 'http://snomed.info/sct')
NameFlagsCard.TypeDescription & Constraintsdoco
.. Observation C0..*USCoreObservationClinicalResultProfileMeasurements and simple assertions
... implicitRules ?!Σ0..1uriA set of rules under which this content was created
... modifierExtension ?!0..*ExtensionExtensions that cannot be ignored
... status ?!SΣ1..1coderegistered | preliminary | final | amended +
Binding: ObservationStatus (required): Codes providing the status of an observation.

... Slices for category S1..*CodeableConceptClassification of type of observation
Slice: Unordered, Open by pattern:$this
Binding: ObservationCategoryCodes (preferred): Codes for high level observation categories.


.... category:us-core S1..1CodeableConceptClassification of type of observation
Binding: US Core Clinical Result Observation Category (required): Note that other codes are permitted, see Required Bindings When Slicing by Value Sets



Required Pattern: At least the following
..... coding1..*CodingCode defined by a terminology system
Fixed Value: (complex)
...... system1..1uriIdentity of the terminology system
Fixed Value: http://terminology.hl7.org/CodeSystem/observation-category
...... code1..1codeSymbol in syntax defined by the system
Fixed Value: laboratory
... code SΣ1..1CodeableConceptLaboratory Test Name
Binding: US Core Laboratory Test Codes (extensible): Laboratory LOINC Codes

... subject SΣ1..1Reference(US Core Patient Profile)Who and/or what the observation is about
... encounter SΣ0..1Reference(US Core Encounter Profile)Encounter associated with Observation
... effective[x] SΣC0..1Clinically relevant time/time-period for observation
.... effectiveDateTimedateTime
... value[x] SΣC0..1Result Value
us-core-4: SHOULD use Snomed CT for coded Results
.... valueQuantityQuantity
.... valueCodeableConceptCodeableConcept
.... valueStringstring
... dataAbsentReason SC0..1CodeableConceptWhy the result is missing
Binding: DataAbsentReason (extensible): Codes specifying why the result (Observation.value[x]) is missing.

... interpretation S0..*CodeableConceptResult interpretation
Binding: ObservationInterpretationCodes (extensible): Observation Interpretation Codes


... specimen S0..1Reference(US Core Specimen Profile)Specimen used for this observation
... referenceRange SC0..*BackboneElementResult reference range
.... modifierExtension ?!Σ0..*ExtensionExtensions that cannot be ignored even if unrecognized

doco Documentation for this format

Terminology Bindings

PathConformanceValueSet / Code
Observation.statusrequiredObservationStatus
Observation.categorypreferredObservationCategoryCodes
Observation.category:us-corerequiredPattern: laboratory
Observation.codeextensibleUSCoreLaboratoryTestCodes
Observation.dataAbsentReasonextensibleDataAbsentReason
Observation.interpretationextensibleObservationInterpretationCodes

Constraints

IdGradePath(s)DetailsRequirements
dom-2errorObservationIf the resource is contained in another resource, it SHALL NOT contain nested Resources
: contained.contained.empty()
dom-3errorObservationIf the resource is contained in another resource, it SHALL be referred to from elsewhere in the resource or SHALL refer to the containing resource
: contained.where((('#'+id in (%resource.descendants().reference | %resource.descendants().as(canonical) | %resource.descendants().as(uri) | %resource.descendants().as(url))) or descendants().where(reference = '#').exists() or descendants().where(as(canonical) = '#').exists() or descendants().where(as(canonical) = '#').exists()).not()).trace('unmatched', id).empty()
dom-4errorObservationIf a resource is contained in another resource, it SHALL NOT have a meta.versionId or a meta.lastUpdated
: contained.meta.versionId.empty() and contained.meta.lastUpdated.empty()
dom-5errorObservationIf a resource is contained in another resource, it SHALL NOT have a security label
: contained.meta.security.empty()
dom-6best practiceObservationA resource should have narrative for robust management
: text.`div`.exists()
ele-1error**ALL** elementsAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ext-1error**ALL** extensionsMust have either extensions or value[x], not both
: extension.exists() != value.exists()
obs-3errorObservation.referenceRangeMust have at least a low or a high or text
: low.exists() or high.exists() or text.exists()
obs-6errorObservationdataAbsentReason SHALL only be present if Observation.value[x] is not present
: dataAbsentReason.empty() or value.empty()
obs-7errorObservationIf Observation.code is the same as an Observation.component.code then the value element associated with the code SHALL NOT be present
: value.empty() or component.code.where(coding.intersect(%resource.code.coding).exists()).empty()
us-core-1errorObservation.effective[x]Datetime must be at least to day.
: $this is dateTime implies $this.toString().length() >= 10
us-core-2errorObservationIf there is no component or hasMember element then either a value[x] or a data absent reason must be present
: (component.empty() and hasMember.empty()) implies (dataAbsentReason.exists() or value.exists())
us-core-3errorObservation.value[x]SHALL use UCUM for coded quantity units.
: ofType(Quantity).system.empty() or ofType(Quantity).system = 'http://unitsofmeasure.org'
us-core-4best practiceObservation.value[x]SHOULD use Snomed CT for coded Results
: ofType(CodeableConcept).coding.system.empty() or (ofType(CodeableConcept).coding.system contains 'http://snomed.info/sct')
NameFlagsCard.TypeDescription & Constraintsdoco
.. Observation C0..*USCoreObservationClinicalResultProfileMeasurements and simple assertions
... id Σ0..1idLogical id of this artifact
... meta Σ0..1MetaMetadata about the resource
... implicitRules ?!Σ0..1uriA set of rules under which this content was created
... language 0..1codeLanguage of the resource content
Binding: CommonLanguages (preferred): A human language.

Additional BindingsPurpose
AllLanguagesMax Binding
... text 0..1NarrativeText summary of the resource, for human interpretation
... contained 0..*ResourceContained, inline Resources
... extension 0..*ExtensionAdditional content defined by implementations
... modifierExtension ?!0..*ExtensionExtensions that cannot be ignored
... identifier Σ0..*IdentifierBusiness Identifier for observation
... basedOn Σ0..*Reference(CarePlan | DeviceRequest | ImmunizationRecommendation | MedicationRequest | NutritionOrder | ServiceRequest)Fulfills plan, proposal or order
... partOf Σ0..*Reference(MedicationAdministration | MedicationDispense | MedicationStatement | Procedure | Immunization | ImagingStudy)Part of referenced event
... status ?!SΣ1..1coderegistered | preliminary | final | amended +
Binding: ObservationStatus (required): Codes providing the status of an observation.

... Slices for category S1..*CodeableConceptClassification of type of observation
Slice: Unordered, Open by pattern:$this
Binding: ObservationCategoryCodes (preferred): Codes for high level observation categories.


.... category:us-core S1..1CodeableConceptClassification of type of observation
Binding: US Core Clinical Result Observation Category (required): Note that other codes are permitted, see Required Bindings When Slicing by Value Sets



Required Pattern: At least the following
..... id0..1stringUnique id for inter-element referencing
..... extension0..*ExtensionAdditional content defined by implementations
..... coding1..*CodingCode defined by a terminology system
Fixed Value: (complex)
...... id0..1stringUnique id for inter-element referencing
...... extension0..*ExtensionAdditional content defined by implementations
...... system1..1uriIdentity of the terminology system
Fixed Value: http://terminology.hl7.org/CodeSystem/observation-category
...... version0..1stringVersion of the system - if relevant
...... code1..1codeSymbol in syntax defined by the system
Fixed Value: laboratory
...... display0..1stringRepresentation defined by the system
...... userSelected0..1booleanIf this coding was chosen directly by the user
..... text0..1stringPlain text representation of the concept
... code SΣ1..1CodeableConceptLaboratory Test Name
Binding: US Core Laboratory Test Codes (extensible): Laboratory LOINC Codes

... subject SΣ1..1Reference(US Core Patient Profile S | Group | Device | US Core Location Profile)Who and/or what the observation is about
... focus Σ0..*Reference(Resource)What the observation is about, when it is not about the subject of record
... encounter SΣ0..1Reference(US Core Encounter Profile)Encounter associated with Observation
... effective[x] SΣC0..1Clinically relevant time/time-period for observation
.... effectiveDateTimedateTime S
.... effectivePeriodPeriod
.... effectiveTimingTiming
.... effectiveInstantinstant
... issued Σ0..1instantDate/Time this version was made available
... performer Σ0..*Reference(Practitioner | PractitionerRole | Organization | CareTeam | Patient | RelatedPerson)Who is responsible for the observation
... value[x] SΣC0..1Result Value
us-core-4: SHOULD use Snomed CT for coded Results
.... valueQuantityQuantity S
.... valueCodeableConceptCodeableConcept S
.... valueStringstring S
.... valueBooleanboolean
.... valueIntegerinteger
.... valueRangeRange
.... valueRatioRatio
.... valueSampledDataSampledData
.... valueTimetime
.... valueDateTimedateTime
.... valuePeriodPeriod
... dataAbsentReason SC0..1CodeableConceptWhy the result is missing
Binding: DataAbsentReason (extensible): Codes specifying why the result (Observation.value[x]) is missing.

... interpretation S0..*CodeableConceptResult interpretation
Binding: ObservationInterpretationCodes (extensible): Observation Interpretation Codes


... note 0..*AnnotationComments about the observation
... bodySite 0..1CodeableConceptObserved body part
Binding: SNOMEDCTBodyStructures (example): Codes describing anatomical locations. May include laterality.

... method 0..1CodeableConceptHow it was done
Binding: ObservationMethods (example): Methods for simple observations.

... specimen S0..1Reference(US Core Specimen Profile)Specimen used for this observation
... device 0..1Reference(Device | DeviceMetric)(Measurement) Device
... referenceRange SC0..*BackboneElementResult reference range
.... id 0..1stringUnique id for inter-element referencing
.... extension 0..*ExtensionAdditional content defined by implementations
.... modifierExtension ?!Σ0..*ExtensionExtensions that cannot be ignored even if unrecognized
.... low C0..1SimpleQuantityLow Range, if relevant
.... high C0..1SimpleQuantityHigh Range, if relevant
.... type 0..1CodeableConceptReference range qualifier
Binding: ObservationReferenceRangeMeaningCodes (preferred): Code for the meaning of a reference range.

.... appliesTo 0..*CodeableConceptReference range population
Binding: ObservationReferenceRangeAppliesToCodes (example): Codes identifying the population the reference range applies to.


.... age 0..1RangeApplicable age range, if relevant
.... text 0..1stringText based reference range in an observation
... hasMember Σ0..*Reference(Observation | QuestionnaireResponse | MolecularSequence)Related resource that belongs to the Observation group
... derivedFrom Σ0..*Reference(DocumentReference | ImagingStudy | Media | QuestionnaireResponse | Observation | MolecularSequence)Related measurements the observation is made from
... component Σ0..*BackboneElementComponent results
.... id 0..1stringUnique id for inter-element referencing
.... extension 0..*ExtensionAdditional content defined by implementations
.... modifierExtension ?!Σ0..*ExtensionExtensions that cannot be ignored even if unrecognized
.... code Σ1..1CodeableConceptType of component observation (code / type)
Binding: LOINCCodes (example): Codes identifying names of simple observations.

.... value[x] Σ0..1Actual component result
..... valueQuantityQuantity
..... valueCodeableConceptCodeableConcept
..... valueStringstring
..... valueBooleanboolean
..... valueIntegerinteger
..... valueRangeRange
..... valueRatioRatio
..... valueSampledDataSampledData
..... valueTimetime
..... valueDateTimedateTime
..... valuePeriodPeriod
.... dataAbsentReason C0..1CodeableConceptWhy the component result is missing
Binding: DataAbsentReason (extensible): Codes specifying why the result (Observation.value[x]) is missing.

.... interpretation 0..*CodeableConceptHigh, low, normal, etc.
Binding: ObservationInterpretationCodes (extensible): Codes identifying interpretations of observations.


.... referenceRange 0..*See referenceRange (Observation)Provides guide for interpretation of component result

doco Documentation for this format

Terminology Bindings

PathConformanceValueSet / Code
Observation.languagepreferredCommonLanguages
Additional Bindings Purpose
AllLanguages Max Binding
Observation.statusrequiredObservationStatus
Observation.categorypreferredObservationCategoryCodes
Observation.category:us-corerequiredPattern: laboratory
Observation.codeextensibleUSCoreLaboratoryTestCodes
Observation.dataAbsentReasonextensibleDataAbsentReason
Observation.interpretationextensibleObservationInterpretationCodes
Observation.bodySiteexampleSNOMEDCTBodyStructures
Observation.methodexampleObservationMethods
Observation.referenceRange.typepreferredObservationReferenceRangeMeaningCodes
Observation.referenceRange.appliesToexampleObservationReferenceRangeAppliesToCodes
Observation.component.codeexampleLOINCCodes (a valid code from LOINC)
Observation.component.dataAbsentReasonextensibleDataAbsentReason
Observation.component.interpretationextensibleObservationInterpretationCodes

Constraints

IdGradePath(s)DetailsRequirements
dom-2errorObservationIf the resource is contained in another resource, it SHALL NOT contain nested Resources
: contained.contained.empty()
dom-3errorObservationIf the resource is contained in another resource, it SHALL be referred to from elsewhere in the resource or SHALL refer to the containing resource
: contained.where((('#'+id in (%resource.descendants().reference | %resource.descendants().as(canonical) | %resource.descendants().as(uri) | %resource.descendants().as(url))) or descendants().where(reference = '#').exists() or descendants().where(as(canonical) = '#').exists() or descendants().where(as(canonical) = '#').exists()).not()).trace('unmatched', id).empty()
dom-4errorObservationIf a resource is contained in another resource, it SHALL NOT have a meta.versionId or a meta.lastUpdated
: contained.meta.versionId.empty() and contained.meta.lastUpdated.empty()
dom-5errorObservationIf a resource is contained in another resource, it SHALL NOT have a security label
: contained.meta.security.empty()
dom-6best practiceObservationA resource should have narrative for robust management
: text.`div`.exists()
ele-1error**ALL** elementsAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ext-1error**ALL** extensionsMust have either extensions or value[x], not both
: extension.exists() != value.exists()
obs-3errorObservation.referenceRangeMust have at least a low or a high or text
: low.exists() or high.exists() or text.exists()
obs-6errorObservationdataAbsentReason SHALL only be present if Observation.value[x] is not present
: dataAbsentReason.empty() or value.empty()
obs-7errorObservationIf Observation.code is the same as an Observation.component.code then the value element associated with the code SHALL NOT be present
: value.empty() or component.code.where(coding.intersect(%resource.code.coding).exists()).empty()
us-core-1errorObservation.effective[x]Datetime must be at least to day.
: $this is dateTime implies $this.toString().length() >= 10
us-core-2errorObservationIf there is no component or hasMember element then either a value[x] or a data absent reason must be present
: (component.empty() and hasMember.empty()) implies (dataAbsentReason.exists() or value.exists())
us-core-3errorObservation.value[x]SHALL use UCUM for coded quantity units.
: ofType(Quantity).system.empty() or ofType(Quantity).system = 'http://unitsofmeasure.org'
us-core-4best practiceObservation.value[x]SHOULD use Snomed CT for coded Results
: ofType(CodeableConcept).coding.system.empty() or (ofType(CodeableConcept).coding.system contains 'http://snomed.info/sct')

This structure is derived from USCoreObservationClinicalResultProfile

Summary

Mandatory: 1 element
Must-Support: 6 elements

Structures

This structure refers to these other structures:

Maturity: 3

Differential View

This structure is derived from USCoreObservationClinicalResultProfile

NameFlagsCard.TypeDescription & Constraintsdoco
.. Observation USCoreObservationClinicalResultProfile
... category:us-core S1..1CodeableConceptClassification of type of observation
Required Pattern: At least the following
.... coding1..*CodingCode defined by a terminology system
Fixed Value: (complex)
..... system1..1uriIdentity of the terminology system
Fixed Value: http://terminology.hl7.org/CodeSystem/observation-category
..... code1..1codeSymbol in syntax defined by the system
Fixed Value: laboratory
... code S1..1CodeableConceptLaboratory Test Name
Binding: US Core Laboratory Test Codes (extensible): Laboratory LOINC Codes

... value[x] SC0..1Result Value
us-core-4: SHOULD use Snomed CT for coded Results
.... valueQuantityQuantity S
.... valueCodeableConceptCodeableConcept S
.... valueStringstring S
.... valueBooleanboolean
.... valueIntegerinteger
.... valueRangeRange
.... valueRatioRatio
.... valueSampledDataSampledData
.... valueTimetime
.... valueDateTimedateTime
.... valuePeriodPeriod
... interpretation S0..*CodeableConceptResult interpretation
Binding: ObservationInterpretationCodes (extensible): Observation Interpretation Codes

... specimen S0..1Reference(US Core Specimen Profile)Specimen used for this observation
... referenceRange S0..*BackboneElementResult reference range

doco Documentation for this format

Terminology Bindings (Differential)

PathConformanceValueSet
Observation.codeextensibleUSCoreLaboratoryTestCodes
Observation.interpretationextensibleObservationInterpretationCodes

Constraints

IdGradePath(s)DetailsRequirements
us-core-4best practiceObservation.value[x]SHOULD use Snomed CT for coded Results
: ofType(CodeableConcept).coding.system.empty() or (ofType(CodeableConcept).coding.system contains 'http://snomed.info/sct')

Key Elements View

NameFlagsCard.TypeDescription & Constraintsdoco
.. Observation C0..*USCoreObservationClinicalResultProfileMeasurements and simple assertions
... implicitRules ?!Σ0..1uriA set of rules under which this content was created
... modifierExtension ?!0..*ExtensionExtensions that cannot be ignored
... status ?!SΣ1..1coderegistered | preliminary | final | amended +
Binding: ObservationStatus (required): Codes providing the status of an observation.

... Slices for category S1..*CodeableConceptClassification of type of observation
Slice: Unordered, Open by pattern:$this
Binding: ObservationCategoryCodes (preferred): Codes for high level observation categories.


.... category:us-core S1..1CodeableConceptClassification of type of observation
Binding: US Core Clinical Result Observation Category (required): Note that other codes are permitted, see Required Bindings When Slicing by Value Sets



Required Pattern: At least the following
..... coding1..*CodingCode defined by a terminology system
Fixed Value: (complex)
...... system1..1uriIdentity of the terminology system
Fixed Value: http://terminology.hl7.org/CodeSystem/observation-category
...... code1..1codeSymbol in syntax defined by the system
Fixed Value: laboratory
... code SΣ1..1CodeableConceptLaboratory Test Name
Binding: US Core Laboratory Test Codes (extensible): Laboratory LOINC Codes

... subject SΣ1..1Reference(US Core Patient Profile)Who and/or what the observation is about
... encounter SΣ0..1Reference(US Core Encounter Profile)Encounter associated with Observation
... effective[x] SΣC0..1Clinically relevant time/time-period for observation
.... effectiveDateTimedateTime
... value[x] SΣC0..1Result Value
us-core-4: SHOULD use Snomed CT for coded Results
.... valueQuantityQuantity
.... valueCodeableConceptCodeableConcept
.... valueStringstring
... dataAbsentReason SC0..1CodeableConceptWhy the result is missing
Binding: DataAbsentReason (extensible): Codes specifying why the result (Observation.value[x]) is missing.

... interpretation S0..*CodeableConceptResult interpretation
Binding: ObservationInterpretationCodes (extensible): Observation Interpretation Codes


... specimen S0..1Reference(US Core Specimen Profile)Specimen used for this observation
... referenceRange SC0..*BackboneElementResult reference range
.... modifierExtension ?!Σ0..*ExtensionExtensions that cannot be ignored even if unrecognized

doco Documentation for this format

Terminology Bindings

PathConformanceValueSet / Code
Observation.statusrequiredObservationStatus
Observation.categorypreferredObservationCategoryCodes
Observation.category:us-corerequiredPattern: laboratory
Observation.codeextensibleUSCoreLaboratoryTestCodes
Observation.dataAbsentReasonextensibleDataAbsentReason
Observation.interpretationextensibleObservationInterpretationCodes

Constraints

IdGradePath(s)DetailsRequirements
dom-2errorObservationIf the resource is contained in another resource, it SHALL NOT contain nested Resources
: contained.contained.empty()
dom-3errorObservationIf the resource is contained in another resource, it SHALL be referred to from elsewhere in the resource or SHALL refer to the containing resource
: contained.where((('#'+id in (%resource.descendants().reference | %resource.descendants().as(canonical) | %resource.descendants().as(uri) | %resource.descendants().as(url))) or descendants().where(reference = '#').exists() or descendants().where(as(canonical) = '#').exists() or descendants().where(as(canonical) = '#').exists()).not()).trace('unmatched', id).empty()
dom-4errorObservationIf a resource is contained in another resource, it SHALL NOT have a meta.versionId or a meta.lastUpdated
: contained.meta.versionId.empty() and contained.meta.lastUpdated.empty()
dom-5errorObservationIf a resource is contained in another resource, it SHALL NOT have a security label
: contained.meta.security.empty()
dom-6best practiceObservationA resource should have narrative for robust management
: text.`div`.exists()
ele-1error**ALL** elementsAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ext-1error**ALL** extensionsMust have either extensions or value[x], not both
: extension.exists() != value.exists()
obs-3errorObservation.referenceRangeMust have at least a low or a high or text
: low.exists() or high.exists() or text.exists()
obs-6errorObservationdataAbsentReason SHALL only be present if Observation.value[x] is not present
: dataAbsentReason.empty() or value.empty()
obs-7errorObservationIf Observation.code is the same as an Observation.component.code then the value element associated with the code SHALL NOT be present
: value.empty() or component.code.where(coding.intersect(%resource.code.coding).exists()).empty()
us-core-1errorObservation.effective[x]Datetime must be at least to day.
: $this is dateTime implies $this.toString().length() >= 10
us-core-2errorObservationIf there is no component or hasMember element then either a value[x] or a data absent reason must be present
: (component.empty() and hasMember.empty()) implies (dataAbsentReason.exists() or value.exists())
us-core-3errorObservation.value[x]SHALL use UCUM for coded quantity units.
: ofType(Quantity).system.empty() or ofType(Quantity).system = 'http://unitsofmeasure.org'
us-core-4best practiceObservation.value[x]SHOULD use Snomed CT for coded Results
: ofType(CodeableConcept).coding.system.empty() or (ofType(CodeableConcept).coding.system contains 'http://snomed.info/sct')

Snapshot View

NameFlagsCard.TypeDescription & Constraintsdoco
.. Observation C0..*USCoreObservationClinicalResultProfileMeasurements and simple assertions
... id Σ0..1idLogical id of this artifact
... meta Σ0..1MetaMetadata about the resource
... implicitRules ?!Σ0..1uriA set of rules under which this content was created
... language 0..1codeLanguage of the resource content
Binding: CommonLanguages (preferred): A human language.

Additional BindingsPurpose
AllLanguagesMax Binding
... text 0..1NarrativeText summary of the resource, for human interpretation
... contained 0..*ResourceContained, inline Resources
... extension 0..*ExtensionAdditional content defined by implementations
... modifierExtension ?!0..*ExtensionExtensions that cannot be ignored
... identifier Σ0..*IdentifierBusiness Identifier for observation
... basedOn Σ0..*Reference(CarePlan | DeviceRequest | ImmunizationRecommendation | MedicationRequest | NutritionOrder | ServiceRequest)Fulfills plan, proposal or order
... partOf Σ0..*Reference(MedicationAdministration | MedicationDispense | MedicationStatement | Procedure | Immunization | ImagingStudy)Part of referenced event
... status ?!SΣ1..1coderegistered | preliminary | final | amended +
Binding: ObservationStatus (required): Codes providing the status of an observation.

... Slices for category S1..*CodeableConceptClassification of type of observation
Slice: Unordered, Open by pattern:$this
Binding: ObservationCategoryCodes (preferred): Codes for high level observation categories.


.... category:us-core S1..1CodeableConceptClassification of type of observation
Binding: US Core Clinical Result Observation Category (required): Note that other codes are permitted, see Required Bindings When Slicing by Value Sets



Required Pattern: At least the following
..... id0..1stringUnique id for inter-element referencing
..... extension0..*ExtensionAdditional content defined by implementations
..... coding1..*CodingCode defined by a terminology system
Fixed Value: (complex)
...... id0..1stringUnique id for inter-element referencing
...... extension0..*ExtensionAdditional content defined by implementations
...... system1..1uriIdentity of the terminology system
Fixed Value: http://terminology.hl7.org/CodeSystem/observation-category
...... version0..1stringVersion of the system - if relevant
...... code1..1codeSymbol in syntax defined by the system
Fixed Value: laboratory
...... display0..1stringRepresentation defined by the system
...... userSelected0..1booleanIf this coding was chosen directly by the user
..... text0..1stringPlain text representation of the concept
... code SΣ1..1CodeableConceptLaboratory Test Name
Binding: US Core Laboratory Test Codes (extensible): Laboratory LOINC Codes

... subject SΣ1..1Reference(US Core Patient Profile S | Group | Device | US Core Location Profile)Who and/or what the observation is about
... focus Σ0..*Reference(Resource)What the observation is about, when it is not about the subject of record
... encounter SΣ0..1Reference(US Core Encounter Profile)Encounter associated with Observation
... effective[x] SΣC0..1Clinically relevant time/time-period for observation
.... effectiveDateTimedateTime S
.... effectivePeriodPeriod
.... effectiveTimingTiming
.... effectiveInstantinstant
... issued Σ0..1instantDate/Time this version was made available
... performer Σ0..*Reference(Practitioner | PractitionerRole | Organization | CareTeam | Patient | RelatedPerson)Who is responsible for the observation
... value[x] SΣC0..1Result Value
us-core-4: SHOULD use Snomed CT for coded Results
.... valueQuantityQuantity S
.... valueCodeableConceptCodeableConcept S
.... valueStringstring S
.... valueBooleanboolean
.... valueIntegerinteger
.... valueRangeRange
.... valueRatioRatio
.... valueSampledDataSampledData
.... valueTimetime
.... valueDateTimedateTime
.... valuePeriodPeriod
... dataAbsentReason SC0..1CodeableConceptWhy the result is missing
Binding: DataAbsentReason (extensible): Codes specifying why the result (Observation.value[x]) is missing.

... interpretation S0..*CodeableConceptResult interpretation
Binding: ObservationInterpretationCodes (extensible): Observation Interpretation Codes


... note 0..*AnnotationComments about the observation
... bodySite 0..1CodeableConceptObserved body part
Binding: SNOMEDCTBodyStructures (example): Codes describing anatomical locations. May include laterality.

... method 0..1CodeableConceptHow it was done
Binding: ObservationMethods (example): Methods for simple observations.

... specimen S0..1Reference(US Core Specimen Profile)Specimen used for this observation
... device 0..1Reference(Device | DeviceMetric)(Measurement) Device
... referenceRange SC0..*BackboneElementResult reference range
.... id 0..1stringUnique id for inter-element referencing
.... extension 0..*ExtensionAdditional content defined by implementations
.... modifierExtension ?!Σ0..*ExtensionExtensions that cannot be ignored even if unrecognized
.... low C0..1SimpleQuantityLow Range, if relevant
.... high C0..1SimpleQuantityHigh Range, if relevant
.... type 0..1CodeableConceptReference range qualifier
Binding: ObservationReferenceRangeMeaningCodes (preferred): Code for the meaning of a reference range.

.... appliesTo 0..*CodeableConceptReference range population
Binding: ObservationReferenceRangeAppliesToCodes (example): Codes identifying the population the reference range applies to.


.... age 0..1RangeApplicable age range, if relevant
.... text 0..1stringText based reference range in an observation
... hasMember Σ0..*Reference(Observation | QuestionnaireResponse | MolecularSequence)Related resource that belongs to the Observation group
... derivedFrom Σ0..*Reference(DocumentReference | ImagingStudy | Media | QuestionnaireResponse | Observation | MolecularSequence)Related measurements the observation is made from
... component Σ0..*BackboneElementComponent results
.... id 0..1stringUnique id for inter-element referencing
.... extension 0..*ExtensionAdditional content defined by implementations
.... modifierExtension ?!Σ0..*ExtensionExtensions that cannot be ignored even if unrecognized
.... code Σ1..1CodeableConceptType of component observation (code / type)
Binding: LOINCCodes (example): Codes identifying names of simple observations.

.... value[x] Σ0..1Actual component result
..... valueQuantityQuantity
..... valueCodeableConceptCodeableConcept
..... valueStringstring
..... valueBooleanboolean
..... valueIntegerinteger
..... valueRangeRange
..... valueRatioRatio
..... valueSampledDataSampledData
..... valueTimetime
..... valueDateTimedateTime
..... valuePeriodPeriod
.... dataAbsentReason C0..1CodeableConceptWhy the component result is missing
Binding: DataAbsentReason (extensible): Codes specifying why the result (Observation.value[x]) is missing.

.... interpretation 0..*CodeableConceptHigh, low, normal, etc.
Binding: ObservationInterpretationCodes (extensible): Codes identifying interpretations of observations.


.... referenceRange 0..*See referenceRange (Observation)Provides guide for interpretation of component result

doco Documentation for this format

Terminology Bindings

PathConformanceValueSet / Code
Observation.languagepreferredCommonLanguages
Additional Bindings Purpose
AllLanguages Max Binding
Observation.statusrequiredObservationStatus
Observation.categorypreferredObservationCategoryCodes
Observation.category:us-corerequiredPattern: laboratory
Observation.codeextensibleUSCoreLaboratoryTestCodes
Observation.dataAbsentReasonextensibleDataAbsentReason
Observation.interpretationextensibleObservationInterpretationCodes
Observation.bodySiteexampleSNOMEDCTBodyStructures
Observation.methodexampleObservationMethods
Observation.referenceRange.typepreferredObservationReferenceRangeMeaningCodes
Observation.referenceRange.appliesToexampleObservationReferenceRangeAppliesToCodes
Observation.component.codeexampleLOINCCodes (a valid code from LOINC)
Observation.component.dataAbsentReasonextensibleDataAbsentReason
Observation.component.interpretationextensibleObservationInterpretationCodes

Constraints

IdGradePath(s)DetailsRequirements
dom-2errorObservationIf the resource is contained in another resource, it SHALL NOT contain nested Resources
: contained.contained.empty()
dom-3errorObservationIf the resource is contained in another resource, it SHALL be referred to from elsewhere in the resource or SHALL refer to the containing resource
: contained.where((('#'+id in (%resource.descendants().reference | %resource.descendants().as(canonical) | %resource.descendants().as(uri) | %resource.descendants().as(url))) or descendants().where(reference = '#').exists() or descendants().where(as(canonical) = '#').exists() or descendants().where(as(canonical) = '#').exists()).not()).trace('unmatched', id).empty()
dom-4errorObservationIf a resource is contained in another resource, it SHALL NOT have a meta.versionId or a meta.lastUpdated
: contained.meta.versionId.empty() and contained.meta.lastUpdated.empty()
dom-5errorObservationIf a resource is contained in another resource, it SHALL NOT have a security label
: contained.meta.security.empty()
dom-6best practiceObservationA resource should have narrative for robust management
: text.`div`.exists()
ele-1error**ALL** elementsAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ext-1error**ALL** extensionsMust have either extensions or value[x], not both
: extension.exists() != value.exists()
obs-3errorObservation.referenceRangeMust have at least a low or a high or text
: low.exists() or high.exists() or text.exists()
obs-6errorObservationdataAbsentReason SHALL only be present if Observation.value[x] is not present
: dataAbsentReason.empty() or value.empty()
obs-7errorObservationIf Observation.code is the same as an Observation.component.code then the value element associated with the code SHALL NOT be present
: value.empty() or component.code.where(coding.intersect(%resource.code.coding).exists()).empty()
us-core-1errorObservation.effective[x]Datetime must be at least to day.
: $this is dateTime implies $this.toString().length() >= 10
us-core-2errorObservationIf there is no component or hasMember element then either a value[x] or a data absent reason must be present
: (component.empty() and hasMember.empty()) implies (dataAbsentReason.exists() or value.exists())
us-core-3errorObservation.value[x]SHALL use UCUM for coded quantity units.
: ofType(Quantity).system.empty() or ofType(Quantity).system = 'http://unitsofmeasure.org'
us-core-4best practiceObservation.value[x]SHOULD use Snomed CT for coded Results
: ofType(CodeableConcept).coding.system.empty() or (ofType(CodeableConcept).coding.system contains 'http://snomed.info/sct')

This structure is derived from USCoreObservationClinicalResultProfile

Summary

Mandatory: 1 element
Must-Support: 6 elements

Structures

This structure refers to these other structures:

Maturity: 3

 

Other representations of profile: CSV, Excel, Schematron

Notes:


Quick Start


Below is an overview of the required Server RESTful FHIR interactions for this profile - for example, search and read operations - when supporting the US Core interactions to access this profile’s information (Profile Support + Interaction Support). Note that systems that support only US Core Profiles (Profile Only Support) are not required to support these interactions. See the US Core Server CapabilityStatement for a complete list of supported RESTful interactions for this IG.

  • The syntax used to describe the interactions is described here.
  • See the General Requirements section for additional rules and expectations when a server requires status parameters.
  • See the General Guidance section for additional guidance on searching for multiple patients.

US Core Scopes

Servers providing access to laboratory data SHALL support these US Core SMART Scopes:

Mandatory Search Parameters:

The following search parameters and search parameter combinations SHALL be supported:

  1. SHALL support searching using the combination of the patient and category search parameters:

    GET [base]/Observation?patient={Type/}[id]&category={http://terminology.hl7.org/CodeSystem/observation-category|}laboratory

    Example:

    1. GET [base]/Observation?patient=1134281&category=http://terminology.hl7.org/CodeSystem/observation-category|laboratory

    Implementation Notes: Fetches a bundle of all Observation resources for the specified patient and a category code = laboratory (how to search by reference and how to search by token)

  2. SHALL support searching using the combination of the patient and code search parameters:
    • including optional support for OR search on code (e.g.code={system|}[code],{system|}[code],...)

    GET [base]/Observation?patient={Type/}[id]&code={system|}[code]{,{system|}[code],...}

    Example:

    1. GET [base]/Observation?patient=1134281&code=http://loinc.org|2339-0
    2. GET [base]/Observation?patient=1134281&code=http://loinc.org|2339-0,http://loinc.org|25428-4,http://loinc.org|2514-8

    Implementation Notes: Fetches a bundle of all Observation resources for the specified patient and observation code(s). SHOULD support search by multiple report codes. The Observation code parameter searches `Observation.code only. (how to search by reference and how to search by token)

  3. SHALL support searching using the combination of the patient and category and date search parameters:
    • including support for these date comparators: gt,lt,ge,le
    • including optional support for AND search on date (e.g.date=[date]&date=[date]]&...)

    GET [base]/Observation?patient={Type/}[id]&category={http://terminology.hl7.org/CodeSystem/observation-category|}laboratory&date={gt|lt|ge|le}[date]{&date={gt|lt|ge|le}[date]&...}

    Example:

    1. GET [base]Observation?patient=555580&category=http://terminology.hl7.org/CodeSystem/observation-category|laboratory&date=ge2018-03-14T00:00:00Z

    Implementation Notes: Fetches a bundle of all Observation resources for the specified patient and date and a category code = laboratory (how to search by reference and how to search by token and how to search by date)

Optional Search Parameters:

The following search parameter combinations SHOULD be supported:

  1. SHOULD support searching using the combination of the patient and category and status search parameters:
    • including support for OR search on status (e.g.status={system|}[code],{system|}[code],...)

    GET [base]/Observation?patient={Type/}[id]&category={http://terminology.hl7.org/CodeSystem/observation-category|}laboratory&status={system|}[code]{,{system|}[code],...}

    Example:

    1. GET [base]/Observation?patient=1134281&category=http://terminology.hl7.org/CodeSystem/observation-category|laboratory&status=final

    Implementation Notes: Fetches a bundle of all Observation resources for the specified patient and category = laboratory and status (how to search by reference and how to search by token)

  2. SHOULD support searching using the combination of the patient and code and date search parameters:
    • including optional support for OR search on code (e.g.code={system|}[code],{system|}[code],...)
    • including support for these date comparators: gt,lt,ge,le
    • including optional support for AND search on date (e.g.date=[date]&date=[date]]&...)

    GET [base]/Observation?patient={Type/}[id]&code={system|}[code]{,{system|}[code],...}&date={gt|lt|ge|le}[date]{&date={gt|lt|ge|le}[date]&...}

    Example:

    1. GET [base]Observation?patient=555580&code=http://loinc.org|2339-0&date=ge2019-01-01T00:00:00Z

    Implementation Notes: Fetches a bundle of all Observation resources for the specified patient and date and report code(s). SHOULD support search by multiple report codes. (how to search by reference and how to search by token and how to search by date)