Data Exchange For Quality Measures Implementation Guide
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Data Exchange For Quality Measures Implementation Guide, published by HL7 International / Clinical Quality Information. This guide is not an authorized publication; it is the continuous build for version 4.0.0 built by the FHIR (HL7® FHIR® Standard) CI Build. This version is based on the current content of https://github.com/HL7/davinci-deqm/ and changes regularly. See the Directory of published versions

Summary Reporting

Introduction

A summary report contains calculated summary data for one or more Clinical Quality Measures (CQMs) for a specified population of patients within a particular health system over a specific period of time. For example, a colorectal cancer screening CQM has patient counts for the initial population, denominator, denominator exclusions, and numerator respectively for a specified population of patients. Summary reports may also contain summary data for stratifier criteria (such as gender or age) as defined in a CQM.

The Summary reporting scenario is supported by the DEQM Summary MeasureReport Profile. Transactions between Reporters (for example, organizations that deliver care to patients, such as a practice or hospital) and Receivers (organizations that want to evaluate CQMs, such as quality reporting programs) are triggered by specific administrative events such as the submission of summary level quality reports for CQMs to various quality reporting programs.

Relationship of Measure and MeasureReport Resources

The Quality Reporting Page in the R4 Release of the FHIR Specification provides an overview of CQM structures, how CQMs are represented using the Measure resource, and how CQMs are reported using the MeasureReport resource. The Reporting Population Datasection describes how to use a MeasureReport resource to represent the results of a summary calculation, as well as how to use the $evaluate-measure operation to generate a summary MeasureReport from a Measure.

Relationship between QI Core, DEQM, and CQMs

As described in the Quality Measurement Standards Landscape section of this implementation guide, the QI Core IG defines a set of FHIR profiles with extensions and bindings needed to create interoperable, quality-focused applications. For implementers that are familiar with the previous generation of standards that supports summary reporting—Quality Data Model (QDM), Clinical Quality Language (CQL), and the Quality Reporting Document Architecture Category III (QRDA Category III), QI Core profiles are equivalent to the Quality Data Model (QDM) and the DEQM Summary MeasureReport Profile is equivalent to the QRDA Category III in the QDM-CQL-QRDA paradigm.

Default Profiles

The following resources are used in the summary reporting scenario:

Resource Type Profile Name Link to Profile
Measure CQFM Measure Profile CQFM Measure
Summary MeasureReport DEQM Summary MeasureReport Profile DEQM Summary MeasureReport Profile
Organization QICore Organization Profile QI Core Organization

Summary Measure Reporting

When the results of a quality measure are completed for a population at the end of a measurement period, they are POSTed to the quality measure Receiver’s FHIR Server. The report may only consist of the Summary MeasureReport in which case it is POSTed to the MeasureReport endpoint. If there are other referenced resources all the resources are bundled together as a set of POST interactions and sent as a single transaction interaction using the Standard FHIR API. Multiple summary results can be sent in a single FHIR Bundle as described here. (Note that if the Bundle consist of only Summary MeasureReports, then a collection bundle is used.)

Posting a Summary Measure Report is typically a one time event, although there may be a need to amend or update a report or to report periodically based on the reporting program. If the payload is a single Summary MeasureReport it is updated using the PUT or Delete transactions. Otherwise, the FHIR transaction bundle is used and SHALL contain only the new and updated DEQM and QI Core Profiles since the last transaction or those that need to be deleted. (Bundle.request.method = POST, PUT, or DELETE).

Figure 2-11 POST Summary Report
summ_report_post.jpg

Usage

for a single MeasureReport:

POST|[base]/MeasureReport

for a Bundle Transaction:

POST|[base]

Standard error responses to the Summary Reporting FHIR RESTful transactions including appropriate http response codes are documented in the FHIR specification for RESTful API.

Examples

Scenario:

Payer X who is acting in the role of a Reporter submits a MRP Summary Report for MRP for period P to Receiver Z. The body of the request is MeasureReport resource containing the required summary data for MRP attestation for the period. (Note that this a simplified example and just populates the count for initial population. However, counts for all populations specified in an eCQM should be reported in a summary report) An HTTP Status success code is returned on successful submission.

POST Summary Report

POST [base]/MeasureReport

Request body

{
  "resourceType" : "MeasureReport",
  "id" : "summ-measurereport01",
  "meta" : {
    "source" : "http://example.org/fhir/server",
    "profile" : ["http://hl7.org/fhir/us/davinci-deqm/StructureDefinition/summary-measurereport-deqm"]
  },
  "text" : {
    "status" : "extensions",
    "div" : "<div xmlns=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml\"><p><b>Generated Narrative: MeasureReport</b><a name=\"summ-measurereport01\"> </a><a name=\"hcsumm-measurereport01\"> </a></p><div style=\"display: inline-block; background-color: #d9e0e7; padding: 6px; margin: 4px; border: 1px solid #8da1b4; border-radius: 5px; line-height: 60%\"><p style=\"margin-bottom: 0px\">Resource MeasureReport &quot;summ-measurereport01&quot; </p><p style=\"margin-bottom: 0px\">Information Source: http://example.org/fhir/server!</p><p style=\"margin-bottom: 0px\">Profile: <a href=\"StructureDefinition-summary-measurereport-deqm.html\">DEQM Summary MeasureReport Profile</a></p></div><p><b>DEQM Measure Scoring Extension</b>: Proportion <span style=\"background: LightGoldenRodYellow; margin: 4px; border: 1px solid khaki\"> (<a href=\"http://terminology.hl7.org/5.5.0/CodeSystem-measure-scoring.html\">MeasureScoring</a>#proportion)</span></p><p><b>status</b>: complete</p><p><b>type</b>: summary</p><p><b>measure</b>: <a href=\"Measure-measure-mrp-example.html\">MRP Measure</a></p><p><b>date</b>: 2018-09-05 16:59:52+0000</p><p><b>reporter</b>: <a href=\"Organization-organization01.html\">Organization/organization01</a> &quot;DaVinciHospital01&quot;</p><p><b>period</b>: 2018-08-01 --&gt; 2018-09-01</p><p><b>improvementNotation</b>: Increased score indicates improvement <span style=\"background: LightGoldenRodYellow; margin: 4px; border: 1px solid khaki\"> (<a href=\"http://terminology.hl7.org/5.5.0/CodeSystem-measure-improvement-notation.html\">MeasureImprovementNotation</a>#increase)</span></p><blockquote><p><b>group</b></p><p><b>code</b>: MRP Group <span style=\"background: LightGoldenRodYellow; margin: 4px; border: 1px solid khaki\"> (#mrp-group)</span></p><blockquote><p><b>population</b></p><blockquote><p><b>id</b></p>initial-population</blockquote><p><b>code</b>: Initial Population <span style=\"background: LightGoldenRodYellow; margin: 4px; border: 1px solid khaki\"> (<a href=\"http://terminology.hl7.org/5.5.0/CodeSystem-measure-population.html\">MeasurePopulationType</a>#initial-population)</span></p><p><b>count</b>: 100</p></blockquote><blockquote><p><b>population</b></p><blockquote><p><b>id</b></p>numerator</blockquote><p><b>code</b>: Numerator <span style=\"background: LightGoldenRodYellow; margin: 4px; border: 1px solid khaki\"> (<a href=\"http://terminology.hl7.org/5.5.0/CodeSystem-measure-population.html\">MeasurePopulationType</a>#numerator)</span></p><p><b>count</b>: 80</p></blockquote><blockquote><p><b>population</b></p><blockquote><p><b>id</b></p>denominator</blockquote><p><b>code</b>: Denominator <span style=\"background: LightGoldenRodYellow; margin: 4px; border: 1px solid khaki\"> (<a href=\"http://terminology.hl7.org/5.5.0/CodeSystem-measure-population.html\">MeasurePopulationType</a>#denominator)</span></p><p><b>count</b>: 100</p></blockquote><p><b>measureScore</b>: 0.8</p></blockquote></div>"
  },
  "extension" : [{
    "url" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/us/davinci-deqm/StructureDefinition/extension-measureScoring",
    "valueCodeableConcept" : {
      "coding" : [{
        "system" : "http://terminology.hl7.org/CodeSystem/measure-scoring",
        "code" : "proportion"
      }]
    }
  }],
  "status" : "complete",
  "type" : "summary",
  "measure" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/us/davinci-deqm/Measure/measure-mrp-example",
  "date" : "2018-09-05T16:59:52.404Z",
  "reporter" : {
    "extension" : [{
      "url" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/us/davinci-deqm/StructureDefinition/extension-reporterGroup",
      "valueReference" : {
        "reference" : "Group/group01"
      }
    }],
    "reference" : "Organization/organization01"
  },
  "period" : {
    "start" : "2018-08-01",
    "end" : "2018-09-01"
  },
  "improvementNotation" : {
    "coding" : [{
      "system" : "http://terminology.hl7.org/CodeSystem/measure-improvement-notation",
      "code" : "increase",
      "display" : "Increased score indicates improvement"
    }]
  },
  "group" : [{
    "code" : {
      "coding" : [{
        "system" : "http://example.org/fhir/",
        "code" : "mrp-group",
        "display" : "MRP Group"
      }],
      "text" : "MRP Group"
    },
    "population" : [{
      "id" : "initial-population",
      "code" : {
        "coding" : [{
          "system" : "http://terminology.hl7.org/CodeSystem/measure-population",
          "code" : "initial-population",
          "display" : "Initial Population"
        }]
      },
      "count" : 100
    },
    {
      "id" : "numerator",
      "code" : {
        "coding" : [{
          "system" : "http://terminology.hl7.org/CodeSystem/measure-population",
          "code" : "numerator",
          "display" : "Numerator"
        }]
      },
      "count" : 80
    },
    {
      "id" : "denominator",
      "code" : {
        "coding" : [{
          "system" : "http://terminology.hl7.org/CodeSystem/measure-population",
          "code" : "denominator",
          "display" : "Denominator"
        }]
      },
      "count" : 100
    }],
    "measureScore" : {
      "value" : 0.8
    }
  }]
}

Response

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
[other headers]

for an example of a Summary MeasureReport with counts for multiple populations and stratifiers specified in an eCQM see the Medicare Stratification Example. For an example of a Bundle of multiple summary results see the Bundle Multiple Summ Report.