Canadian Core
0.1.0 - CI Build

Canadian Core, published by Canadian FHIR Implementor Working Group. This is not an authorized publication; it is the continuous build for version 0.1.0). This version is based on the current content of https://github.com/scratch-fhir-profiles/CA-Core/ and changes regularly. See the Directory of published versions

Resource Profile: Observation Profile (General)

Defining URL:http://hl7.org/fhir/ca/core/StructureDefinition/profile-observation
Version:0.1.0
Name:ObservationProfile (General Use)
Title:Observation Profile (General Use)
Status:Draft as of 2020-06-08
Definition:

Proposed constraints on the Observation Resource for general use

Publisher:Canadian FHIR Implementor Working Group
Source Resource:XML / JSON / Turtle

The official URL for this profile is:

http://hl7.org/fhir/ca/core/StructureDefinition/profile-observation

CA Baseline Observation (General Use) Profile

This profile sets minimum expectations for the Observation resource to represent various observations if no other, more specific profile is applicable. An observation is a measurement or assertion about a subject (person, group, device, location, or another subject).

This profile defines localization concepts for use in the Canadian context.

Mandatory Data Elements

All elements or attributes within the FHIR specification have cardinality as part of their definition - a minimum number of required appearances and a maximum number of allowable appearances.

Most elements in the FHIR specification have a minimum cardinality of 0, so most elements are not required and subsequently they may be missing from a resource when it is exchanged between systems.

Required elements in the Observation (General Use) profile:

  • status of the result value (Observation.status)
  • type of observation (Observation.code)
  • subject of the observation (Observation.subject)

Data Absent Reason

An Observation without a value, SHALL include a reason why the data is absent unless there are component observations, or references to other Observations that are grouped within it, i.e., unless there are component observations, or references to other Observations that are grouped within it then either ONE of Observation.value OR Observation.dataAbsentReason but NOT both SHALL be present.

Must Support Data Elements

Some elements are marked as Must Support. This means that implementations generating, receiving, or otherwise using resources with Must Support elements SHALL provide support for those elements in some meaningful way (see Must Support definition).

The following elements are marked as Must Support in the Observation (General Use) profile:

Must Support elements:

  • category
  • code
  • reference to a subject (Observation.subject)
  • effective data
  • value
  • dataAbsentReason
  • component code
  • component value
  • component dataAbsentReason

Usage Note

Observation (General Use) is intended to capture data associated with most observations; it is not intended to capture data in some cases where a more appropriate profile is applicable (see below). Data typically consists of measurements or assertions about a subject. Observation (General Use) can capture data in eclectic use cases as it incorporates multiple categories of observations and datatypes. Observation (General Use) can capture data such as:

  • Clinical observations such as clinical finding, diagnosis, disorder
  • Demographic information
  • Device measurements
  • Determinants of health such as housing status, income, family support

Observation (General Use) should not be used if one of the following profiles is applicable:

  • Observation (Laboratory Results)
  • Observation (Vitals)

Formal Views of Profile Content

Description of Profiles, Differentials, Snapshots and how the different presentations work.

This structure is derived from Observation

Summary

Mandatory: 1 element
Must-Support: 9 elements

Structures

This structure refers to these other structures:

This structure is derived from Observation

NameFlagsCard.TypeDescription & Constraintsdoco
.. Observation 0..*ObservationObservation Profile
... category S0..*CodeableConceptClassification of type of observation
... code S1..1CodeableConceptType of observation (code / type)
Binding: LOINCCodes (preferred): LOINC codes identifying names of simple observations.

... subject S1..1Reference(Patient Profile)Who and/or what the observation is about
.... effectiveDateTimedateTime
.... effectivePeriodPeriod
... value[x] SI0..1Quantity, CodeableConcept, string, boolean, integer, Range, Ratio, SampledData, time, dateTime, PeriodActual result
ca-core-value-1: Observation.value[x] or Observation.dataAbsentReason or Observation.component SHOULD be present
... dataAbsentReason SI0..1CodeableConceptWhy the result is missing
ca-core-value-1: Observation.value[x] or Observation.dataAbsentReason or Observation.component SHOULD be present
... component
.... code S1..1CodeableConceptType of component observation (code / type)
Binding: LOINCCodes (preferred): LOINC codes identifying names of simple observations.

.... value[x] SI0..1Quantity, CodeableConcept, string, boolean, integer, Range, Ratio, SampledData, time, dateTime, PeriodActual component result
ca-core-value-2: Observation.component.value[x] or Observation.component.dataAbsentReason SHALL be present
.... dataAbsentReason SI0..1CodeableConceptWhy the component result is missing
ca-core-value-2: Observation.component.value[x] or Observation.component.dataAbsentReason SHALL be present

doco Documentation for this format
NameFlagsCard.TypeDescription & Constraintsdoco
.. Observation I0..*ObservationObservation Profile
... id Σ0..1stringLogical id of this artifact
... meta Σ0..1MetaMetadata about the resource
... implicitRules ?!Σ0..1uriA set of rules under which this content was created
... language 0..1codeLanguage of the resource content
Binding: CommonLanguages (preferred)
Max Binding: AllLanguages: A human language.

... text 0..1NarrativeText summary of the resource, for human interpretation
... contained 0..*ResourceContained, inline Resources
... extension 0..*ExtensionAdditional content defined by implementations
... modifierExtension ?!0..*ExtensionExtensions that cannot be ignored
... identifier Σ0..*IdentifierBusiness Identifier for observation
... basedOn Σ0..*Reference(CarePlan | DeviceRequest | ImmunizationRecommendation | MedicationRequest | NutritionOrder | ServiceRequest)Fulfills plan, proposal or order
... partOf Σ0..*Reference(MedicationAdministration | MedicationDispense | MedicationStatement | Procedure | Immunization | ImagingStudy)Part of referenced event
... status ?!Σ1..1coderegistered | preliminary | final | amended +
Binding: ObservationStatus (required): Codes providing the status of an observation.

... category S0..*CodeableConceptClassification of type of observation
Binding: ObservationCategoryCodes (preferred): Codes for high level observation categories.


... code SΣ1..1CodeableConceptType of observation (code / type)
Binding: LOINCCodes (preferred): LOINC codes identifying names of simple observations.

... subject SΣ1..1Reference(Patient Profile)Who and/or what the observation is about
... focus Σ0..*Reference(Resource)What the observation is about, when it is not about the subject of record
... encounter Σ0..1Reference(Encounter)Healthcare event during which this observation is made
... effective[x] SΣ0..1Clinically relevant time/time-period for observation
.... effectiveDateTimedateTime
.... effectivePeriodPeriod
... issued Σ0..1instantDate/Time this version was made available
... performer Σ0..*Reference(Practitioner | PractitionerRole | Organization | CareTeam | Patient | RelatedPerson)Who is responsible for the observation
... value[x] SΣI0..1Actual result
ca-core-value-1: Observation.value[x] or Observation.dataAbsentReason or Observation.component SHOULD be present
.... valueQuantityQuantity
.... valueCodeableConceptCodeableConcept
.... valueStringstring
.... valueBooleanboolean
.... valueIntegerinteger
.... valueRangeRange
.... valueRatioRatio
.... valueSampledDataSampledData
.... valueTimetime
.... valueDateTimedateTime
.... valuePeriodPeriod
... dataAbsentReason SI0..1CodeableConceptWhy the result is missing
Binding: DataAbsentReason (extensible): Codes specifying why the result (Observation.value[x]) is missing.


ca-core-value-1: Observation.value[x] or Observation.dataAbsentReason or Observation.component SHOULD be present
... interpretation 0..*CodeableConceptHigh, low, normal, etc.
Binding: ObservationInterpretationCodes (extensible): Codes identifying interpretations of observations.


... note 0..*AnnotationComments about the observation
... bodySite 0..1CodeableConceptObserved body part
Binding: SNOMEDCTBodyStructures (example): Codes describing anatomical locations. May include laterality.

... method 0..1CodeableConceptHow it was done
Binding: ObservationMethods (example): Methods for simple observations.

... specimen 0..1Reference(Specimen)Specimen used for this observation
... device 0..1Reference(Device | DeviceMetric)(Measurement) Device
... referenceRange I0..*BackboneElementProvides guide for interpretation
obs-3: Must have at least a low or a high or text
.... id 0..1stringUnique id for inter-element referencing
.... extension 0..*ExtensionAdditional content defined by implementations
.... modifierExtension ?!Σ0..*ExtensionExtensions that cannot be ignored even if unrecognized
.... low I0..1SimpleQuantityLow Range, if relevant
.... high I0..1SimpleQuantityHigh Range, if relevant
.... type 0..1CodeableConceptReference range qualifier
Binding: ObservationReferenceRangeMeaningCodes (preferred): Code for the meaning of a reference range.

.... appliesTo 0..*CodeableConceptReference range population
Binding: ObservationReferenceRangeAppliesToCodes (example): Codes identifying the population the reference range applies to.


.... age 0..1RangeApplicable age range, if relevant
.... text 0..1stringText based reference range in an observation
... hasMember Σ0..*Reference(Observation | QuestionnaireResponse | MolecularSequence)Related resource that belongs to the Observation group
... derivedFrom Σ0..*Reference(DocumentReference | ImagingStudy | Media | QuestionnaireResponse | Observation | MolecularSequence)Related measurements the observation is made from
... component Σ0..*BackboneElementComponent results
.... id 0..1stringUnique id for inter-element referencing
.... extension 0..*ExtensionAdditional content defined by implementations
.... modifierExtension ?!Σ0..*ExtensionExtensions that cannot be ignored even if unrecognized
.... code SΣ1..1CodeableConceptType of component observation (code / type)
Binding: LOINCCodes (preferred): LOINC codes identifying names of simple observations.

.... value[x] SΣI0..1Actual component result
ca-core-value-2: Observation.component.value[x] or Observation.component.dataAbsentReason SHALL be present
..... valueQuantityQuantity
..... valueCodeableConceptCodeableConcept
..... valueStringstring
..... valueBooleanboolean
..... valueIntegerinteger
..... valueRangeRange
..... valueRatioRatio
..... valueSampledDataSampledData
..... valueTimetime
..... valueDateTimedateTime
..... valuePeriodPeriod
.... dataAbsentReason SI0..1CodeableConceptWhy the component result is missing
Binding: DataAbsentReason (extensible): Codes specifying why the result (Observation.value[x]) is missing.


ca-core-value-2: Observation.component.value[x] or Observation.component.dataAbsentReason SHALL be present
.... interpretation 0..*CodeableConceptHigh, low, normal, etc.
Binding: ObservationInterpretationCodes (extensible): Codes identifying interpretations of observations.


.... referenceRange 0..*See referenceRange (Observation)Provides guide for interpretation of component result

doco Documentation for this format
NameFlagsCard.TypeDescription & Constraintsdoco
.. Observation I0..*ObservationObservation Profile
... category 0..*CodeableConceptClassification of type of observation
Binding: ObservationCategoryCodes (preferred): Codes for high level observation categories.


... code Σ1..1CodeableConceptType of observation (code / type)
Binding: LOINCCodes (preferred): LOINC codes identifying names of simple observations.

... subject Σ1..1Reference(Patient Profile)Who and/or what the observation is about
.... effectiveDateTimedateTime
.... effectivePeriodPeriod
... value[x] ΣI0..1Actual result
ca-core-value-1: Observation.value[x] or Observation.dataAbsentReason or Observation.component SHOULD be present
.... valueQuantityQuantity
.... valueCodeableConceptCodeableConcept
.... valueStringstring
.... valueBooleanboolean
.... valueIntegerinteger
.... valueRangeRange
.... valueRatioRatio
.... valueSampledDataSampledData
.... valueTimetime
.... valueDateTimedateTime
.... valuePeriodPeriod
... dataAbsentReason I0..1CodeableConceptWhy the result is missing
Binding: DataAbsentReason (extensible): Codes specifying why the result (Observation.value[x]) is missing.


ca-core-value-1: Observation.value[x] or Observation.dataAbsentReason or Observation.component SHOULD be present
... component Σ0..*BackboneElementComponent results
.... code Σ1..1CodeableConceptType of component observation (code / type)
Binding: LOINCCodes (preferred): LOINC codes identifying names of simple observations.

.... value[x] ΣI0..1Actual component result
ca-core-value-2: Observation.component.value[x] or Observation.component.dataAbsentReason SHALL be present
..... valueQuantityQuantity
..... valueCodeableConceptCodeableConcept
..... valueStringstring
..... valueBooleanboolean
..... valueIntegerinteger
..... valueRangeRange
..... valueRatioRatio
..... valueSampledDataSampledData
..... valueTimetime
..... valueDateTimedateTime
..... valuePeriodPeriod
.... dataAbsentReason I0..1CodeableConceptWhy the component result is missing
Binding: DataAbsentReason (extensible): Codes specifying why the result (Observation.value[x]) is missing.


ca-core-value-2: Observation.component.value[x] or Observation.component.dataAbsentReason SHALL be present

doco Documentation for this format

This structure is derived from Observation

Summary

Mandatory: 1 element
Must-Support: 9 elements

Structures

This structure refers to these other structures:

Differential View

This structure is derived from Observation

NameFlagsCard.TypeDescription & Constraintsdoco
.. Observation 0..*ObservationObservation Profile
... category S0..*CodeableConceptClassification of type of observation
... code S1..1CodeableConceptType of observation (code / type)
Binding: LOINCCodes (preferred): LOINC codes identifying names of simple observations.

... subject S1..1Reference(Patient Profile)Who and/or what the observation is about
.... effectiveDateTimedateTime
.... effectivePeriodPeriod
... value[x] SI0..1Quantity, CodeableConcept, string, boolean, integer, Range, Ratio, SampledData, time, dateTime, PeriodActual result
ca-core-value-1: Observation.value[x] or Observation.dataAbsentReason or Observation.component SHOULD be present
... dataAbsentReason SI0..1CodeableConceptWhy the result is missing
ca-core-value-1: Observation.value[x] or Observation.dataAbsentReason or Observation.component SHOULD be present
... component
.... code S1..1CodeableConceptType of component observation (code / type)
Binding: LOINCCodes (preferred): LOINC codes identifying names of simple observations.

.... value[x] SI0..1Quantity, CodeableConcept, string, boolean, integer, Range, Ratio, SampledData, time, dateTime, PeriodActual component result
ca-core-value-2: Observation.component.value[x] or Observation.component.dataAbsentReason SHALL be present
.... dataAbsentReason SI0..1CodeableConceptWhy the component result is missing
ca-core-value-2: Observation.component.value[x] or Observation.component.dataAbsentReason SHALL be present

doco Documentation for this format

Snapshot View

NameFlagsCard.TypeDescription & Constraintsdoco
.. Observation I0..*ObservationObservation Profile
... id Σ0..1stringLogical id of this artifact
... meta Σ0..1MetaMetadata about the resource
... implicitRules ?!Σ0..1uriA set of rules under which this content was created
... language 0..1codeLanguage of the resource content
Binding: CommonLanguages (preferred)
Max Binding: AllLanguages: A human language.

... text 0..1NarrativeText summary of the resource, for human interpretation
... contained 0..*ResourceContained, inline Resources
... extension 0..*ExtensionAdditional content defined by implementations
... modifierExtension ?!0..*ExtensionExtensions that cannot be ignored
... identifier Σ0..*IdentifierBusiness Identifier for observation
... basedOn Σ0..*Reference(CarePlan | DeviceRequest | ImmunizationRecommendation | MedicationRequest | NutritionOrder | ServiceRequest)Fulfills plan, proposal or order
... partOf Σ0..*Reference(MedicationAdministration | MedicationDispense | MedicationStatement | Procedure | Immunization | ImagingStudy)Part of referenced event
... status ?!Σ1..1coderegistered | preliminary | final | amended +
Binding: ObservationStatus (required): Codes providing the status of an observation.

... category S0..*CodeableConceptClassification of type of observation
Binding: ObservationCategoryCodes (preferred): Codes for high level observation categories.


... code SΣ1..1CodeableConceptType of observation (code / type)
Binding: LOINCCodes (preferred): LOINC codes identifying names of simple observations.

... subject SΣ1..1Reference(Patient Profile)Who and/or what the observation is about
... focus Σ0..*Reference(Resource)What the observation is about, when it is not about the subject of record
... encounter Σ0..1Reference(Encounter)Healthcare event during which this observation is made
... effective[x] SΣ0..1Clinically relevant time/time-period for observation
.... effectiveDateTimedateTime
.... effectivePeriodPeriod
... issued Σ0..1instantDate/Time this version was made available
... performer Σ0..*Reference(Practitioner | PractitionerRole | Organization | CareTeam | Patient | RelatedPerson)Who is responsible for the observation
... value[x] SΣI0..1Actual result
ca-core-value-1: Observation.value[x] or Observation.dataAbsentReason or Observation.component SHOULD be present
.... valueQuantityQuantity
.... valueCodeableConceptCodeableConcept
.... valueStringstring
.... valueBooleanboolean
.... valueIntegerinteger
.... valueRangeRange
.... valueRatioRatio
.... valueSampledDataSampledData
.... valueTimetime
.... valueDateTimedateTime
.... valuePeriodPeriod
... dataAbsentReason SI0..1CodeableConceptWhy the result is missing
Binding: DataAbsentReason (extensible): Codes specifying why the result (Observation.value[x]) is missing.


ca-core-value-1: Observation.value[x] or Observation.dataAbsentReason or Observation.component SHOULD be present
... interpretation 0..*CodeableConceptHigh, low, normal, etc.
Binding: ObservationInterpretationCodes (extensible): Codes identifying interpretations of observations.


... note 0..*AnnotationComments about the observation
... bodySite 0..1CodeableConceptObserved body part
Binding: SNOMEDCTBodyStructures (example): Codes describing anatomical locations. May include laterality.

... method 0..1CodeableConceptHow it was done
Binding: ObservationMethods (example): Methods for simple observations.

... specimen 0..1Reference(Specimen)Specimen used for this observation
... device 0..1Reference(Device | DeviceMetric)(Measurement) Device
... referenceRange I0..*BackboneElementProvides guide for interpretation
obs-3: Must have at least a low or a high or text
.... id 0..1stringUnique id for inter-element referencing
.... extension 0..*ExtensionAdditional content defined by implementations
.... modifierExtension ?!Σ0..*ExtensionExtensions that cannot be ignored even if unrecognized
.... low I0..1SimpleQuantityLow Range, if relevant
.... high I0..1SimpleQuantityHigh Range, if relevant
.... type 0..1CodeableConceptReference range qualifier
Binding: ObservationReferenceRangeMeaningCodes (preferred): Code for the meaning of a reference range.

.... appliesTo 0..*CodeableConceptReference range population
Binding: ObservationReferenceRangeAppliesToCodes (example): Codes identifying the population the reference range applies to.


.... age 0..1RangeApplicable age range, if relevant
.... text 0..1stringText based reference range in an observation
... hasMember Σ0..*Reference(Observation | QuestionnaireResponse | MolecularSequence)Related resource that belongs to the Observation group
... derivedFrom Σ0..*Reference(DocumentReference | ImagingStudy | Media | QuestionnaireResponse | Observation | MolecularSequence)Related measurements the observation is made from
... component Σ0..*BackboneElementComponent results
.... id 0..1stringUnique id for inter-element referencing
.... extension 0..*ExtensionAdditional content defined by implementations
.... modifierExtension ?!Σ0..*ExtensionExtensions that cannot be ignored even if unrecognized
.... code SΣ1..1CodeableConceptType of component observation (code / type)
Binding: LOINCCodes (preferred): LOINC codes identifying names of simple observations.

.... value[x] SΣI0..1Actual component result
ca-core-value-2: Observation.component.value[x] or Observation.component.dataAbsentReason SHALL be present
..... valueQuantityQuantity
..... valueCodeableConceptCodeableConcept
..... valueStringstring
..... valueBooleanboolean
..... valueIntegerinteger
..... valueRangeRange
..... valueRatioRatio
..... valueSampledDataSampledData
..... valueTimetime
..... valueDateTimedateTime
..... valuePeriodPeriod
.... dataAbsentReason SI0..1CodeableConceptWhy the component result is missing
Binding: DataAbsentReason (extensible): Codes specifying why the result (Observation.value[x]) is missing.


ca-core-value-2: Observation.component.value[x] or Observation.component.dataAbsentReason SHALL be present
.... interpretation 0..*CodeableConceptHigh, low, normal, etc.
Binding: ObservationInterpretationCodes (extensible): Codes identifying interpretations of observations.


.... referenceRange 0..*See referenceRange (Observation)Provides guide for interpretation of component result

doco Documentation for this format

 

Other representations of profile: Schematron

Terminology Bindings

PathConformanceValueSet
Observation.languagepreferredCommonLanguages
Max Binding: AllLanguages
Observation.statusrequiredObservationStatus
Observation.categorypreferredObservationCategoryCodes
Observation.codepreferredLOINCCodes
Observation.dataAbsentReasonextensibleDataAbsentReason
Observation.interpretationextensibleObservationInterpretationCodes
Observation.bodySiteexampleSNOMEDCTBodyStructures
Observation.methodexampleObservationMethods
Observation.referenceRange.typepreferredObservationReferenceRangeMeaningCodes
Observation.referenceRange.appliesToexampleObservationReferenceRangeAppliesToCodes
Observation.component.codepreferredLOINCCodes
Observation.component.dataAbsentReasonextensibleDataAbsentReason
Observation.component.interpretationextensibleObservationInterpretationCodes

Constraints

IdPathDetailsRequirements
dom-2ObservationIf the resource is contained in another resource, it SHALL NOT contain nested Resources
: contained.contained.empty()
dom-3ObservationIf the resource is contained in another resource, it SHALL be referred to from elsewhere in the resource or SHALL refer to the containing resource
: contained.where((('#'+id in (%resource.descendants().reference | %resource.descendants().as(canonical) | %resource.descendants().as(uri) | %resource.descendants().as(url))) or descendants().where(reference = '#').exists() or descendants().where(as(canonical) = '#').exists() or descendants().where(as(canonical) = '#').exists()).not()).trace('unmatched', id).empty()
dom-4ObservationIf a resource is contained in another resource, it SHALL NOT have a meta.versionId or a meta.lastUpdated
: contained.meta.versionId.empty() and contained.meta.lastUpdated.empty()
dom-5ObservationIf a resource is contained in another resource, it SHALL NOT have a security label
: contained.meta.security.empty()
dom-6ObservationA resource should have narrative for robust management
: text.`div`.exists()
obs-6ObservationdataAbsentReason SHALL only be present if Observation.value[x] is not present
: dataAbsentReason.empty() or value.empty()
obs-7ObservationIf Observation.code is the same as an Observation.component.code then the value element associated with the code SHALL NOT be present
: value.empty() or component.code.where(coding.intersect(%resource.code.coding).exists()).empty()
ele-1Observation.metaAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ele-1Observation.implicitRulesAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ele-1Observation.languageAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ele-1Observation.textAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ele-1Observation.extensionAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ext-1Observation.extensionMust have either extensions or value[x], not both
: extension.exists() != value.exists()
ele-1Observation.modifierExtensionAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ext-1Observation.modifierExtensionMust have either extensions or value[x], not both
: extension.exists() != value.exists()
ele-1Observation.identifierAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ele-1Observation.basedOnAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ele-1Observation.partOfAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ele-1Observation.statusAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ele-1Observation.categoryAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ele-1Observation.codeAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ele-1Observation.subjectAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ele-1Observation.focusAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ele-1Observation.encounterAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ele-1Observation.effective[x]All FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ele-1Observation.issuedAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ele-1Observation.performerAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ele-1Observation.value[x]All FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ca-core-value-1Observation.value[x]Observation.value[x] or Observation.dataAbsentReason or Observation.component SHOULD be present
: value[x].exists() or dataAbsentReason.exists() or component.exists()
ele-1Observation.dataAbsentReasonAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ca-core-value-1Observation.dataAbsentReasonObservation.value[x] or Observation.dataAbsentReason or Observation.component SHOULD be present
: value[x].exists() or dataAbsentReason.exists() or component.exists()
ele-1Observation.interpretationAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ele-1Observation.noteAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ele-1Observation.bodySiteAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ele-1Observation.methodAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ele-1Observation.specimenAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ele-1Observation.deviceAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ele-1Observation.referenceRangeAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
obs-3Observation.referenceRangeMust have at least a low or a high or text
: low.exists() or high.exists() or text.exists()
ele-1Observation.referenceRange.extensionAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ext-1Observation.referenceRange.extensionMust have either extensions or value[x], not both
: extension.exists() != value.exists()
ele-1Observation.referenceRange.modifierExtensionAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ext-1Observation.referenceRange.modifierExtensionMust have either extensions or value[x], not both
: extension.exists() != value.exists()
ele-1Observation.referenceRange.lowAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ele-1Observation.referenceRange.highAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ele-1Observation.referenceRange.typeAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ele-1Observation.referenceRange.appliesToAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ele-1Observation.referenceRange.ageAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ele-1Observation.referenceRange.textAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ele-1Observation.hasMemberAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ele-1Observation.derivedFromAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ele-1Observation.componentAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ele-1Observation.component.extensionAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ext-1Observation.component.extensionMust have either extensions or value[x], not both
: extension.exists() != value.exists()
ele-1Observation.component.modifierExtensionAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ext-1Observation.component.modifierExtensionMust have either extensions or value[x], not both
: extension.exists() != value.exists()
ele-1Observation.component.codeAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ele-1Observation.component.value[x]All FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ca-core-value-2Observation.component.value[x]Observation.component.value[x] or Observation.component.dataAbsentReason SHALL be present
: component.value[x].exists() or component.dataAbsentReason.exists()
ele-1Observation.component.dataAbsentReasonAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ca-core-value-2Observation.component.dataAbsentReasonObservation.component.value[x] or Observation.component.dataAbsentReason SHALL be present
: component.value[x].exists() or component.dataAbsentReason.exists()
ele-1Observation.component.interpretationAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())
ele-1Observation.component.referenceRangeAll FHIR elements must have a @value or children
: hasValue() or (children().count() > id.count())

Notes:

Using codes in Observation

Additional codes that translate or map to the Observation code or category codes are allowed (see CodeableConcept data type).

Examples:

  • providing both a local code and LOINC code
  • providing more specific category codes
  • providing a SNOMED CT concept
  • providing system specific codes

Category

The Observation.category specifies a code that classifies the type of observation. The Observation.category element is a CodeableConcept data type, and more than one code is allowed.

For interoperability reasons, one of the codes SHOULD be from the FHIR standard defined Observation Category Codes.

Local codes are allowed as well. In the case of using local codes, in order to classify the type of observation both category.coding.system and category.coding.code SHOULD be provided.

Code

The Observation.code element describes what was observed. Sometimes this is called the observation “name”.

The pan-Canadian LOINC Observation Code Database (pCLOCD) is recommended for use in the Canadian context. pCLOCD Code System URI is https://fhir.infoway-inforoute.ca/CodeSystem/pCLOCD

value[x] and dataAbsentReason

Observation (General Use) uses a name-value pair to code data. When the value for the actual observation is not known, i.e., the value for Observation.value[x] is not available, then Observation.value[x] will not be present and the Observation.dataAbsentReason SHALL be present and will provide a reason why the expected value is missing. Also, the Observation.dataAbsentReason SHALL only be present if and only if the value for Observation.value[x] is not present.

The same rule applies when Observation.component is used. I.e., if Observation.component.value[x] is missed, then Observation.component.dataAbsentReason SHALL be present with the reason.