WHO Digital Documentation of COVID-19 Certificates (DDCC)
1.0.0 - CI Build International flag

WHO Digital Documentation of COVID-19 Certificates (DDCC), published by WHO. This guide is not an authorized publication; it is the continuous build for version 1.0.0 built by the FHIR (HL7® FHIR® Standard) CI Build. This version is based on the current content of https://github.com/WorldHealthOrganization/ddcc/ and changes regularly. See the Directory of published versions


Official URL: http://smart.who.int/ddcc/ImplementationGuide/who.ddcc Version: 1.0.0
Draft as of 2022-03-22 Computable Name: DDCC

This WHO Digital Documentation of COVID-19 Certificates (DDCC) Implementation Guide details how to use Health Level 7 (HL7) Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) for consistent digital representation of COVID-19 certificates and interoperability.

  • This version of the implementation guide is based on the current content at https://github.com/WorldHealthOrganization/ddcc
  • This implementation guide and set of artifacts are still undergoing development.
  • Content is for demonstration purposes only.


This implementation guide contains a standards-compliant specifications for the DDCC: Vaccination Status and Test Result technical specifications and guidance documents. It explicitly encodes computer-interoperable logic, including data models, terminologies, and logic expressions, in a computable language to support implementation of vaccination and test result use cases by Member States.

To facilitate implementation of effective and interoperable digital solutions:

The DDCC documents contain overviews of high-level use cases for digital COVID-19 certificates, including:

  • workflows;
  • core data elements mapped to standard code systems;
  • functional and non-functional requirements;
  • an overview of digitally signing and verifying a certificate with public key infrastructure (PKI) technology;
  • implementation guidance regarding ethical considerations, privacy and data protection principles;
  • national governance considerations;
  • and this linked FHIR Implementation Guide for the DDCC scope.

Supporting guidance, recommendations, resources, and standards are included in the References and Dependencies.

About this implementation guide

This implementation guide is broken into the following levels of knowledge representation:

  • Home Contains references to the guidance, guidelines, policies and recommendations underpinning this implementation guide.
  • Business Requirements Contains the requirements for this implementation guide including the definition of key concepts, use cases, and a data dictionary.
  • Data Models and Exchange Contains the data models and data exchange protocols with actors and transactions defined.
  • Deployment Guidance Contains relevant technical specifications and guidance, testing resources, reference implementation materials, and supporting guidance for adaptation to local contexts.


The specification herewith documented is a demo working specification and may not be used for any implementation purposes. This draft is provided without warranty of completeness or consistency and the official publication supersedes this draft. No liability can be inferred from the use or misuse of this specification or its consequences.