SMART Health Cards: Vaccination & Testing Implementation Guide
0.6.2 - STU 1 (Ballot Version) International flag

SMART Health Cards: Vaccination & Testing Implementation Guide, published by HL7 International - Public Health Work Group. This is not an authorized publication; it is the continuous build for version 0.6.2). This version is based on the current content of and changes regularly. See the Directory of published versions

Profile Group: Vaccination

Profile Group: Vaccination


For representing a vaccination for an infectious disease such as COVID-19 or influenza.

Primary profile (DM) Fallback profile (AD) Scope of profile pair
Vaccination Fallback Any infectious disease
For more information about the types of profiles in this IG, see the profiles page.


Scope and terminology

An Immunization resource conforming to this profile SHALL be used to describe a single vaccine given to a patient.

For vaccinations that require multiple doses of a vaccine (e.g., the mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines that have a two-dose series), a separate Immunization resource SHALL be provided for each vaccine given in the series.

Note that:

While the terms “immunization” and “vaccination” are not clinically identical, for the purposes of the FHIR resources, the terms are used synonymously. (source)

Identifying vaccines

The vaccineCode element is used to identify the vaccine given to the patient.

Implementers SHALL use at least one of the following code systems for identifying vaccinations in the vaccineCode element:

Code system Value set Example
GTIN: VaccineGTIN 380777273990 (Moderna COVID-19 vaccination, NDC 80777-273)
CVX: VaccineCVX 207 (“COVID-19, mRNA, LNP-S, PF, 100 mcg/0.5 mL dose”)
AIR* Australian Immunisation Register Vaccine COVAST (“COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca”)
SNOMED CT: VaccineSNOMED 1119349007 (“Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 mRNA only vaccine product”)
ICD-11: VaccineICD11 XM0GQ8 (“COVID-19 vaccine, RNA based)
ATC/DDD: VaccineATC J07BX03 (“covid-19 vaccines”)

* The URI for AIR is

Some additional information about the table above:

  • A code system defines a set of “codes” and their mappings onto specific meanings. For example, the CVX code system includes the code 207, which is mapped to the meaning “COVID-19, mRNA, LNP-S, PF, 100 mcg/0.5 mL dose”. Using a code system helps to ensure implementers represent a given concept in a consistent way that other implementers can understand.
  • A value set defines a group of codes that can be used within a specific element. For example, we define a value set of SNOMED-CT codes for vaccine products for use in the vaccineCode element. FHIR allows an element to be “bound” to a value set, meaning that the contents of that element must come from the value set (for a “required binding”) or should come form the value set (for a “preferred binding”).
  • Codes from multiple code systems may be used in vaccineCode. While these codes all generally identify vaccines, they may do so at different levels of granularity. For example, some codes may just identify the target disease and type of vaccine. Others may identify specific vaccine products. The table above is sorted roughly from most to least granular.

Issuers MAY include multiple codes within vaccineCode ONLY IF they believe the additional information is helpful for other actors. For example, an Issuer may be targeting a Verifier that prefers SNOMED, but the Issuer also wishes to provide manufacturer information via the GTIN. In this case, the following would conform:

"vaccineCode": {
  "coding": [
      "system": "",
      "code": "1119349007"
      "system": "",
      "code": "380777273990"

When using multiple codes, the codes SHALL NOT contradict each other. More information on conformance expectations for multiple codes in a CodeableConcept is available here, and excerpted below:

More than one code may be used in CodeableConcept. The concept may be coded multiple times in different code systems…. Each coding (also referred to as a ‘translation’) is a representation of the concept as described above and may have slightly different granularity due to the differences in the definitions of the underlying codes. There is no meaning associated with the ordering of coding within a CodeableConcept.

However, as described above, for data minimization reasons, Issuers SHOULD typically include ONLY a single code that is the most granular (i.e., includes the greatest level of detail) of the options available in their system UNLESS they believe another actor may benefit from the additional code. Typically at most two codes will be included in vaccineCode: a less granular code paired with a GTIN code to identify manufacturer as described below.

Verifiers SHALL be able to meaningfully process and interpret codes from ALL of the systems listed above.

Support for additional code systems

Implementers may request support for an additional code system by opening a new GitHub issue.

Vaccine formulation specificity requirements

In some cases, identifying the specific formulation of a vaccine may be necessary for Verifiers to determine if the presented immunization(s) meet their criteria. For example, a code meaning only “COVID-19 mRNA vaccine” may be insufficient for a Verifier who wishes to ensure the patient received two doses on the proper schedule (the timing of the 2nd dose is different for the Pfizer and Moderna mRNA vaccines). Some code systems, such as CVX, may provide different codes for vaccines where the timing and number of doses differ.

Issuers of Immunization resources conforming to this IG’s vaccination profiles SHALL provide code(s) in vaccineCode that allow Verifiers to infer the manufacture’s recommended timing and number of doses for the vaccine in question. For example, this means providing a code that differentiates between the Moderna and Pfizer mRNA COVID-19 vaccines.

Additionally, Issuers of Immunization resources conforming to this IG’s vaccination profiles SHALL provide code(s) in vaccineCode that allow Verifiers to differentiate between vaccines with meaningfully different effectiveness as reported in peer-reviewed medical literature. For example, COVID-19 vaccines have a wide range of reported effectiveness, so it is insufficient to use only a generic “COVID-19 vaccine” code.

For COVID-19 specifically, the following table identifies which code systems MAY require the use of additional information to identify a vaccination with enough specificity to meet these conformance criteria. However, this table may not reflect the most current versions of code systems or status of vaccines – Issuers SHALL consult with infectious disease experts to determine a given set of code(s) is sufficient.

Code system COVID-19: Additional codes needed to identify formulation?
ICD-11 Yes

† The UK edition of SNOMED CT includes codes for COVID-19 vaccines that identify specific vaccine products. Children of 39330711000001103, such as 39326811000001106 (“Generic COVID-19 mRNA (nucleoside modified) Vaccine Moderna 0.1mg/0.5mL dose dispersion for injection multidose vials (product)”), can therefore be used without separately specifying the manufacturer as long as the SNOMED Fully Specified Name includes the manufacturer of the vaccine. This holds for any other locale-specific editions of SNOMED CT that include codes with this level of granularity.

Identifying vaccine manufacturer

One way Issuers may be able to meet the above vaccine specificity conformance criteria is to identify the manufacturer of the vaccine. This can be done in two ways:

  1. Include GTIN in vaccineCode (preferred)
  2. Populate manufacturer.identifier (fallback)

Adding a GTIN to vaccineCode is preferred because this is less verbose than using manufacturer.identifier, and because manufacturer.identifier is not a CodeableConcept (meaning that it cannot be bound to a value set like vaccineCode for validation).

Despite manufacturer.identifier not being bound to a value set, Issuers populating this element SHALL identify a code system URI in system and use a code from that code system in value. Specifically, Issuers SHALL use a code from one of the code systems below in manufacturer.identifier.value:

Code system Example
MVX: MOD (Moderna)
GLN: 0380777000008 (Moderna)

For example, to identify Moderna, either of the following may be used:

  • MVX

      "manufacturer": {
        "identifier": {
          "system": "",
          "value": "MOD"
  • GLN

      "manufacturer": {
        "identifier": {
          "system": "",
          "value": "0380777000008"

Verifiers SHALL be able to meaningfully process and interpret codes from ALL of the systems listed above.

Issuers SHALL ONLY provide manufacturer separately from the primary vaccineCode value IF it is necessary for differentiating among vaccine formulations as described above.

Note manufacturer and lot number may be recorded together in vaccine records. To conform with this IG, manufacturer SHALL NOT appear in the lotNumber element; instead, Issuers SHALL apply the above conformance criteria to determine when and how manufacturer can be identified.

CVX and MVX codes

When vaccine and manufacturer are provided using US-centric terminology (CVX and MVX, respectively) for COVID-19 vaccinations, CDC provides a list that includes “Sale Proprietary Name” (e.g., Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine). The “Sale Proprietary Name” or other trade name SHALL NOT be included in FHIR resources, but MAY be used by actors when producing human-readable representations of these resources.

Note that as of July 2021, CVX implicitly identifies specific vaccine products and manufacturers only for COVID-19. For other diseases, CVX typically identifies just the target disease and vaccine type. Issuers that only populate vaccineCode with a CVX code therefore SHALL NOT populate a manufacturer for COVID-19 vaccinations UNLESS they believe this information is important for Verifiers. For other diseases, Issuers should refer to the conformance criteria above to determine if providing additional information to identify a specific vaccine formulation is necessary when primarily using CVX to identify vaccines.

Universal terminology: GTIN and GLN

In addition to the US-centric CVX and MVX code systems, this IG supports GTIN for identifying vaccine products, and GLN for identifying manufacturers. GTIN and GLN are international standards governed by GS1 for identifying products and their manufacturers. Note GTINs may differ depending on the packaging of a product and country of sale, so there may be multiple GTINs assigned to the same vaccine product. (Note that for COVID-19, EU member states as well as Norway and Iceland agreed to use the same GTIN for each COVID-19 vaccine product, but this is not typically the case.)

For example, the following GTINs are assigned to the Janssen (Johnson & Johnson) COVID-19 vaccine:


The manufacturer can be looked up from a GTIN using a search tool like this one. For example, the GTIN 00359676580157 is associated with Janssen Products LP, in Piscataway, New Jersey, USA (GLN = 0359676000006).

A “company prefix” appears at the beginning of each GTIN, and ranges of these prefixes are controlled by the GS1 offices in specific countries. For example, the 035 prefix in 00359676580157 means the code was assigned by GS1 US. The 541 prefix in the other GTINs listed above means the GTIN is assigned by GS1 Belgium & Luxembourg.

In the US, the GTIN for pharmaceuticals is derived from the National Drug Code. Because the example above (00359676580157) is a US product, the NDC can be extracted:

GTIN 00359676580157
 NDC    5967658015

The NDC of 59676-580-15 corresponds to a carton of 10 multi-dose vials of the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine.

For Verifiers, the method for identifying the vaccine product associated with a specific GTIN may differ depending on the associated GS1 office and locale. For example:

Some locales may not have a GTIN lookup tool for pharmaceuticals or vaccines. In these cases, it may be necessary to contact the manufacturer of the vaccine to determine the canonical list of GTINs used to represent a given vaccine product. Note that even if product-level GTIN lookup is not available from a central database, the manufacturer associated with a given GTIN can be looked up using a search tool like this one.

Universal terminology: SNOMED CT

This IG also supports the use of SNOMED CT for identifying vaccines. Note that some of the SNOMED CT codes that are part of this value set expansion, including the COVID-19-related SNOMED CT codes, may be used under the a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License as part of the SNOMED Global Patient Set. Please refer to to determine which specific SNOMED CT codes may be used under this license.

Conformance for status and statusReason

The status element indicates if a given Immunization resource represents a completed vaccination, or if the vaccination was not completed for some reason.

Issuers SHALL only produce resources conforming to this profile IF the immunization event was performed and warrants the status being valued completed. This requirement is reflected in the profile by fixing the value of status to completed. Note that status is required rather than being omitted entirely due to inheriting 1..1 cardinality from the Immunization resource, along with an Is-Modifier flag. This profile adds the MustSupport flag indicating Verifiers SHALL meaningfully process this element as described on the Conformance page, which is important in case a non-conforming resource is provided that has status set to a value other than completed.

The statusReason element is disallowed (0..0 cardinality) because it is not meaningful when status is completed.

Why protocolApplied is not allowed

The protocolApplied element is set to 0..0 cardinality because it reflects the provider’s intent, rather than being an authoritative source of information about the dose number and number of doses in the series. Including this element could lead to confusion with verifiers who do not recognize this distinction.

Instead, verifiers should use the presence and timestamps of multiple doses along with vaccineCode to make their own determination about whether or not an Immunization resource represents a valid dose of the vaccine and, if applicable, completion of a series.