Opioid Prescribing Support Implementation Guide, published by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This is not an authorized publication; it is the continuous build for version 1.2.3). This version is based on the current content of https://github.com/cqframework/opioid-cds/ and changes regularly. See the Directory of published versions

CDC-Observation


{
  "resourceType" : "StructureDefinition",
  "id" : "cdc-observation",
  "text" : {
    "status" : "extensions",
    "div" : "<div xmlns=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml\"><table border=\"0\" cellpadding=\"0\" cellspacing=\"0\" style=\"border: 0px #F0F0F0 solid; font-size: 11px; font-family: verdana; vertical-align: top;\"><tr style=\"border: 1px #F0F0F0 solid; font-size: 11px; font-family: verdana; vertical-align: top\"><th style=\"vertical-align: top; text-align : left; background-color: white; border: 0px #F0F0F0 solid; padding:0px 4px 0px 4px\" class=\"hierarchy\"><a href=\"http://hl7.org/fhir/STU3/formats.html#table\" title=\"The logical name of the element\">Name</a></th><th style=\"vertical-align: top; text-align : left; background-color: white; border: 0px #F0F0F0 solid; padding:0px 4px 0px 4px\" class=\"hierarchy\"><a href=\"http://hl7.org/fhir/STU3/formats.html#table\" title=\"Information about the use of the element\">Flags</a></th><th style=\"vertical-align: top; text-align : left; background-color: white; border: 0px #F0F0F0 solid; padding:0px 4px 0px 4px\" class=\"hierarchy\"><a href=\"http://hl7.org/fhir/STU3/formats.html#table\" title=\"Minimum and Maximum # of times the the element can appear in the instance\">Card.</a></th><th style=\"width: 100px\" class=\"hierarchy\"><a href=\"http://hl7.org/fhir/STU3/formats.html#table\" title=\"Reference to the type of the element\">Type</a></th><th style=\"vertical-align: top; text-align : left; background-color: white; border: 0px #F0F0F0 solid; padding:0px 4px 0px 4px\" class=\"hierarchy\"><a href=\"http://hl7.org/fhir/STU3/formats.html#table\" title=\"Additional information about the element\">Description &amp; Constraints</a><span style=\"float: right\"><a href=\"http://hl7.org/fhir/STU3/formats.html#table\" title=\"Legend for this format\"><img src=\"http://hl7.org/fhir/STU3/help16.png\" alt=\"doco\" style=\"background-color: inherit\"/></a></span></th></tr><tr style=\"border: 0px #F0F0F0 solid; padding:0px; vertical-align: top; background-color: white\"><td style=\"vertical-align: top; text-align : left; background-color: white; border: 0px #F0F0F0 solid; padding:0px 4px 0px 4px; white-space: nowrap; background-image: url(tbl_bck1.png)\" class=\"hierarchy\"><img src=\"tbl_spacer.png\" alt=\".\" style=\"background-color: inherit\" class=\"hierarchy\"/><img src=\"icon_resource.png\" alt=\".\" style=\"background-color: white; background-color: inherit\" title=\"Resource\" class=\"hierarchy\"/> <a href=\"cdc-observation-definitions.html#Observation\">Observation</a><a name=\"Observation\"> </a></td><td style=\"vertical-align: top; text-align : left; background-color: white; border: 0px #F0F0F0 solid; padding:0px 4px 0px 4px\" class=\"hierarchy\"/><td style=\"vertical-align: top; text-align : left; background-color: white; border: 0px #F0F0F0 solid; padding:0px 4px 0px 4px\" class=\"hierarchy\"><span style=\"opacity: 0.5\">0</span><span style=\"opacity: 0.5\">..</span><span style=\"opacity: 0.5\">*</span></td><td style=\"vertical-align: top; text-align : left; background-color: white; border: 0px #F0F0F0 solid; padding:0px 4px 0px 4px\" class=\"hierarchy\"><a href=\"http://hl7.org/fhir/STU3/observation.html\">Observation</a></td><td style=\"vertical-align: top; text-align : left; background-color: white; border: 0px #F0F0F0 solid; padding:0px 4px 0px 4px\" class=\"hierarchy\"><span style=\"opacity: 0.5\">Measurements and simple assertions</span></td></tr>\r\n<tr style=\"border: 0px #F0F0F0 solid; padding:0px; vertical-align: top; background-color: #F7F7F7\"><td style=\"vertical-align: top; text-align : left; background-color: #F7F7F7; border: 0px #F0F0F0 solid; padding:0px 4px 0px 4px; white-space: nowrap; background-image: url(tbl_bck00.png)\" class=\"hierarchy\"><img src=\"tbl_spacer.png\" alt=\".\" style=\"background-color: inherit\" class=\"hierarchy\"/><img src=\"tbl_vjoin_end.png\" alt=\".\" style=\"background-color: inherit\" class=\"hierarchy\"/><img src=\"icon_element.gif\" alt=\".\" style=\"background-color: #F7F7F7; background-color: inherit\" title=\"Element\" class=\"hierarchy\"/> <a href=\"cdc-observation-definitions.html#Observation.interpretation\">interpretation</a><a name=\"Observation.interpretation\"> </a></td><td style=\"vertical-align: top; text-align : left; background-color: #F7F7F7; border: 0px #F0F0F0 solid; padding:0px 4px 0px 4px\" class=\"hierarchy\"><span style=\"padding-left: 3px; padding-right: 3px; color: white; background-color: red\" title=\"This element must be supported\">S</span></td><td style=\"vertical-align: top; text-align : left; background-color: #F7F7F7; border: 0px #F0F0F0 solid; padding:0px 4px 0px 4px\" class=\"hierarchy\">1..1</td><td style=\"vertical-align: top; text-align : left; background-color: #F7F7F7; border: 0px #F0F0F0 solid; padding:0px 4px 0px 4px\" class=\"hierarchy\"><a style=\"opacity: 0.5\" href=\"http://hl7.org/fhir/STU3/datatypes.html#CodeableConcept\">CodeableConcept</a></td><td style=\"vertical-align: top; text-align : left; background-color: #F7F7F7; border: 0px #F0F0F0 solid; padding:0px 4px 0px 4px\" class=\"hierarchy\"><span style=\"opacity: 0.5\">High, low, normal, etc.</span></td></tr>\r\n<tr><td colspan=\"5\" class=\"hierarchy\"><br/><a href=\"http://hl7.org/fhir/STU3/formats.html#table\" title=\"Legend for this format\"><img src=\"http://hl7.org/fhir/STU3/help16.png\" alt=\"doco\" style=\"background-color: inherit\"/> Documentation for this format</a></td></tr></table></div>"
  },
  "url" : "http://fhir.org/guides/cdc/opioid-cds/StructureDefinition/cdc-observation",
  "version" : "0.1",
  "name" : "CDC-Observation",
  "status" : "draft",
  "experimental" : false,
  "date" : "2018-11-20",
  "publisher" : "Health Level Seven, Inc. - CQI WG",
  "contact" : [
    {
      "telecom" : [
        {
          "system" : "url",
          "value" : "http://hl7.org/special/committees/CQI"
        }
      ]
    }
  ],
  "description" : "Profile of Observation for decision support/quality metrics. Defines the core set of elements and extensions for quality rule and measure authors.",
  "fhirVersion" : "3.0.2",
  "mapping" : [
    {
      "identity" : "workflow",
      "uri" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/workflow",
      "name" : "Workflow Mapping"
    },
    {
      "identity" : "sct-concept",
      "uri" : "http://snomed.info/conceptdomain",
      "name" : "SNOMED CT Concept Domain Binding"
    },
    {
      "identity" : "v2",
      "uri" : "http://hl7.org/v2",
      "name" : "HL7 v2 Mapping"
    },
    {
      "identity" : "rim",
      "uri" : "http://hl7.org/v3",
      "name" : "RIM Mapping"
    },
    {
      "identity" : "w5",
      "uri" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/w5",
      "name" : "W5 Mapping"
    },
    {
      "identity" : "sct-attr",
      "uri" : "http://snomed.info/sct",
      "name" : "SNOMED CT Attribute Binding"
    }
  ],
  "kind" : "resource",
  "abstract" : false,
  "type" : "Observation",
  "baseDefinition" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Observation",
  "derivation" : "constraint",
  "snapshot" : {
    "element" : [
      {
        "id" : "Observation",
        "path" : "Observation",
        "short" : "Measurements and simple assertions",
        "definition" : "Measurements and simple assertions made about a patient, device or other subject.",
        "comment" : "Used for simple observations such as device measurements, laboratory atomic results, vital signs, height, weight, smoking status, comments, etc.  Other resources are used to provide context for observations such as lab reports, etc.",
        "alias" : [
          "Vital Signs",
          "Measurement",
          "Results",
          "Tests"
        ],
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "*",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Observation",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "*"
        },
        "constraint" : [
          {
            "key" : "dom-2",
            "severity" : "error",
            "human" : "If the resource is contained in another resource, it SHALL NOT contain nested Resources",
            "expression" : "contained.contained.empty()",
            "xpath" : "not(parent::f:contained and f:contained)",
            "source" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/DomainResource"
          },
          {
            "key" : "dom-1",
            "severity" : "error",
            "human" : "If the resource is contained in another resource, it SHALL NOT contain any narrative",
            "expression" : "contained.text.empty()",
            "xpath" : "not(parent::f:contained and f:text)",
            "source" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/DomainResource"
          },
          {
            "key" : "dom-4",
            "severity" : "error",
            "human" : "If a resource is contained in another resource, it SHALL NOT have a meta.versionId or a meta.lastUpdated",
            "expression" : "contained.meta.versionId.empty() and contained.meta.lastUpdated.empty()",
            "xpath" : "not(exists(f:contained/*/f:meta/f:versionId)) and not(exists(f:contained/*/f:meta/f:lastUpdated))",
            "source" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/DomainResource"
          },
          {
            "key" : "dom-3",
            "severity" : "error",
            "human" : "If the resource is contained in another resource, it SHALL be referred to from elsewhere in the resource",
            "expression" : "contained.where(('#'+id in %resource.descendants().reference).not()).empty()",
            "xpath" : "not(exists(for $id in f:contained/*/@id return $id[not(ancestor::f:contained/parent::*/descendant::f:reference/@value=concat('#', $id))]))",
            "source" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/DomainResource"
          },
          {
            "key" : "obs-7",
            "severity" : "error",
            "human" : "If code is the same as a component code then the value element associated with the code SHALL NOT be present",
            "expression" : "value.empty() or component.code.where( (coding.code = %resource.code.coding.code) and (coding.system = %resource.code.coding.system)).empty()",
            "xpath" : "not(exists(f:*[starts-with(local-name(.), 'value')])) or not(count(for $coding in f:code/f:coding return parent::*/f:component/f:code/f:coding[f:code/@value=$coding/f:code/@value and f:system/@value=$coding/f:system/@value])=0)",
            "source" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Observation"
          },
          {
            "key" : "obs-6",
            "severity" : "error",
            "human" : "dataAbsentReason SHALL only be present if Observation.value[x] is not present",
            "expression" : "dataAbsentReason.empty() or value.empty()",
            "xpath" : "not(exists(f:dataAbsentReason)) or (not(exists(*[starts-with(local-name(.), 'value')])))",
            "source" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Observation"
          }
        ],
        "mustSupport" : false,
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "Entity. Role, or Act"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "workflow",
            "map" : "Event"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "sct-concept",
            "map" : "< 363787002 |Observable entity|"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "v2",
            "map" : "OBX"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "Observation[classCode=OBS, moodCode=EVN]"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "w5",
            "map" : "clinical.diagnostics"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.id",
        "path" : "Observation.id",
        "short" : "Logical id of this artifact",
        "definition" : "The logical id of the resource, as used in the URL for the resource. Once assigned, this value never changes.",
        "comment" : "The only time that a resource does not have an id is when it is being submitted to the server using a create operation.",
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "1",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Resource.id",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "1"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "id"
          }
        ],
        "isSummary" : true
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.meta",
        "path" : "Observation.meta",
        "short" : "Metadata about the resource",
        "definition" : "The metadata about the resource. This is content that is maintained by the infrastructure. Changes to the content may not always be associated with version changes to the resource.",
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "1",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Resource.meta",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "1"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "Meta"
          }
        ],
        "isSummary" : true
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.implicitRules",
        "path" : "Observation.implicitRules",
        "short" : "A set of rules under which this content was created",
        "definition" : "A reference to a set of rules that were followed when the resource was constructed, and which must be understood when processing the content.",
        "comment" : "Asserting this rule set restricts the content to be only understood by a limited set of trading partners. This inherently limits the usefulness of the data in the long term. However, the existing health eco-system is highly fractured, and not yet ready to define, collect, and exchange data in a generally computable sense. Wherever possible, implementers and/or specification writers should avoid using this element. \n\nThis element is labelled as a modifier because the implicit rules may provide additional knowledge about the resource that modifies it's meaning or interpretation.",
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "1",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Resource.implicitRules",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "1"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "uri"
          }
        ],
        "isModifier" : true,
        "isSummary" : true
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.language",
        "path" : "Observation.language",
        "short" : "Language of the resource content",
        "definition" : "The base language in which the resource is written.",
        "comment" : "Language is provided to support indexing and accessibility (typically, services such as text to speech use the language tag). The html language tag in the narrative applies  to the narrative. The language tag on the resource may be used to specify the language of other presentations generated from the data in the resource  Not all the content has to be in the base language. The Resource.language should not be assumed to apply to the narrative automatically. If a language is specified, it should it also be specified on the div element in the html (see rules in HTML5 for information about the relationship between xml:lang and the html lang attribute).",
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "1",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Resource.language",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "1"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "code"
          }
        ],
        "binding" : {
          "extension" : [
            {
              "url" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/elementdefinition-maxValueSet",
              "valueReference" : {
                "reference" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/ValueSet/all-languages"
              }
            },
            {
              "url" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/elementdefinition-bindingName",
              "valueString" : "Language"
            },
            {
              "url" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/elementdefinition-isCommonBinding",
              "valueBoolean" : true
            }
          ],
          "strength" : "extensible",
          "description" : "A human language.",
          "valueSetReference" : {
            "reference" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/ValueSet/languages"
          }
        }
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.text",
        "path" : "Observation.text",
        "short" : "Text summary of the resource, for human interpretation",
        "definition" : "A human-readable narrative that contains a summary of the resource, and may be used to represent the content of the resource to a human. The narrative need not encode all the structured data, but is required to contain sufficient detail to make it \"clinically safe\" for a human to just read the narrative. Resource definitions may define what content should be represented in the narrative to ensure clinical safety.",
        "comment" : "Contained resources do not have narrative. Resources that are not contained SHOULD have a narrative. In some cases, a resource may only have text with little or no additional discrete data (as long as all minOccurs=1 elements are satisfied).  This may be necessary for data from legacy systems where information is captured as a \"text blob\" or where text is additionally entered raw or narrated and encoded in formation is added later.",
        "alias" : [
          "narrative",
          "html",
          "xhtml",
          "display"
        ],
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "1",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "DomainResource.text",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "1"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "Narrative"
          }
        ],
        "condition" : [
          "dom-1"
        ],
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "Act.text?"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.contained",
        "path" : "Observation.contained",
        "short" : "Contained, inline Resources",
        "definition" : "These resources do not have an independent existence apart from the resource that contains them - they cannot be identified independently, and nor can they have their own independent transaction scope.",
        "comment" : "This should never be done when the content can be identified properly, as once identification is lost, it is extremely difficult (and context dependent) to restore it again.",
        "alias" : [
          "inline resources",
          "anonymous resources",
          "contained resources"
        ],
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "*",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "DomainResource.contained",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "*"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "Resource"
          }
        ],
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "N/A"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.extension",
        "path" : "Observation.extension",
        "short" : "Additional Content defined by implementations",
        "definition" : "May be used to represent additional information that is not part of the basic definition of the resource. In order to make the use of extensions safe and manageable, there is a strict set of governance  applied to the definition and use of extensions. Though any implementer is allowed to define an extension, there is a set of requirements that SHALL be met as part of the definition of the extension.",
        "comment" : "There can be no stigma associated with the use of extensions by any application, project, or standard - regardless of the institution or jurisdiction that uses or defines the extensions.  The use of extensions is what allows the FHIR specification to retain a core level of simplicity for everyone.",
        "alias" : [
          "extensions",
          "user content"
        ],
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "*",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "DomainResource.extension",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "*"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "Extension"
          }
        ],
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "N/A"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.modifierExtension",
        "path" : "Observation.modifierExtension",
        "short" : "Extensions that cannot be ignored",
        "definition" : "May be used to represent additional information that is not part of the basic definition of the resource, and that modifies the understanding of the element that contains it. Usually modifier elements provide negation or qualification. In order to make the use of extensions safe and manageable, there is a strict set of governance applied to the definition and use of extensions. Though any implementer is allowed to define an extension, there is a set of requirements that SHALL be met as part of the definition of the extension. Applications processing a resource are required to check for modifier extensions.",
        "comment" : "There can be no stigma associated with the use of extensions by any application, project, or standard - regardless of the institution or jurisdiction that uses or defines the extensions.  The use of extensions is what allows the FHIR specification to retain a core level of simplicity for everyone.",
        "alias" : [
          "extensions",
          "user content"
        ],
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "*",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "DomainResource.modifierExtension",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "*"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "Extension"
          }
        ],
        "isModifier" : true,
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "N/A"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.identifier",
        "path" : "Observation.identifier",
        "short" : "Business Identifier for observation",
        "definition" : "A unique identifier assigned to this observation.",
        "requirements" : "Allows observations to be distinguished and referenced.",
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "*",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Observation.identifier",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "*"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "Identifier"
          }
        ],
        "isSummary" : true,
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "workflow",
            "map" : "Event.identifier"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "v2",
            "map" : "OBX.21  For OBX segments from systems without OBX-21 support a combination of ORC/OBR and OBX must be negotiated between trading partners to uniquely identify the OBX segment. Depending on how V2 has been implemented each of these may be an option: 1) OBR-3 + OBX-3 + OBX-4 or 2) OBR-3 + OBR-4 + OBX-3 + OBX-4 or 2) some other way to uniquely ID the OBR/ORC + OBX-3 + OBX-4."
          },
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "id"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "w5",
            "map" : "id"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.basedOn",
        "path" : "Observation.basedOn",
        "short" : "Fulfills plan, proposal or order",
        "definition" : "A plan, proposal or order that is fulfilled in whole or in part by this event.",
        "requirements" : "Allows tracing of authorization for the event and tracking whether proposals/recommendations were acted upon.",
        "alias" : [
          "Fulfills"
        ],
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "*",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Observation.basedOn",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "*"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "Reference",
            "targetProfile" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/CarePlan"
          },
          {
            "code" : "Reference",
            "targetProfile" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/DeviceRequest"
          },
          {
            "code" : "Reference",
            "targetProfile" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/ImmunizationRecommendation"
          },
          {
            "code" : "Reference",
            "targetProfile" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/MedicationRequest"
          },
          {
            "code" : "Reference",
            "targetProfile" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/NutritionOrder"
          },
          {
            "code" : "Reference",
            "targetProfile" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/ProcedureRequest"
          },
          {
            "code" : "Reference",
            "targetProfile" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/ReferralRequest"
          }
        ],
        "isSummary" : true,
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "workflow",
            "map" : "Event.basedOn"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "v2",
            "map" : "ORC"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : ".outboundRelationship[typeCode=FLFS].target"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.status",
        "extension" : [
          {
            "url" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/structuredefinition-display-hint",
            "valueString" : "default: final"
          }
        ],
        "path" : "Observation.status",
        "short" : "registered | preliminary | final | amended +",
        "definition" : "The status of the result value.",
        "comment" : "This element is labeled as a modifier because the status contains codes that mark the resource as not currently valid.",
        "requirements" : "Need to track the status of individual results. Some results are finalized before the whole report is finalized.",
        "min" : 1,
        "max" : "1",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Observation.status",
          "min" : 1,
          "max" : "1"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "code"
          }
        ],
        "isModifier" : true,
        "isSummary" : true,
        "binding" : {
          "extension" : [
            {
              "url" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/elementdefinition-bindingName",
              "valueString" : "ObservationStatus"
            }
          ],
          "strength" : "required",
          "description" : "Codes providing the status of an observation.",
          "valueSetReference" : {
            "reference" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/ValueSet/observation-status"
          }
        },
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "workflow",
            "map" : "Event.status"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "sct-concept",
            "map" : "< 445584004 |Report by finality status|"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "v2",
            "map" : "OBX-11"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "status  Amended & Final are differentiated by whether it is the subject of a ControlAct event with a type of \"revise\""
          },
          {
            "identity" : "w5",
            "map" : "status"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.category",
        "path" : "Observation.category",
        "short" : "Classification of  type of observation",
        "definition" : "A code that classifies the general type of observation being made.",
        "comment" : "In addition to the required category valueset, this element allows various categorization schemes based on the owner’s definition of the category and effectively multiple categories can be used at once.  The level of granularity is defined by the category concepts in the value set.",
        "requirements" : "Used for filtering what observations are retrieved and displayed.",
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "*",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Observation.category",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "*"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "CodeableConcept"
          }
        ],
        "binding" : {
          "extension" : [
            {
              "url" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/elementdefinition-bindingName",
              "valueString" : "ObservationCategory"
            }
          ],
          "strength" : "preferred",
          "description" : "Codes for high level observation categories.",
          "valueSetReference" : {
            "reference" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/ValueSet/observation-category"
          }
        },
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : ".outboundRelationship[typeCode=\"COMP].target[classCode=\"LIST\", moodCode=\"EVN\"].code"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "w5",
            "map" : "class"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.code",
        "path" : "Observation.code",
        "short" : "Type of observation (code / type)",
        "definition" : "Describes what was observed. Sometimes this is called the observation \"name\".",
        "requirements" : "Knowing what kind of observation is being made is essential to understanding the observation.",
        "alias" : [
          "Name"
        ],
        "min" : 1,
        "max" : "1",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Observation.code",
          "min" : 1,
          "max" : "1"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "CodeableConcept"
          }
        ],
        "isSummary" : true,
        "binding" : {
          "extension" : [
            {
              "url" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/elementdefinition-bindingName",
              "valueString" : "ObservationCode"
            }
          ],
          "strength" : "example",
          "description" : "Codes identifying names of simple observations.",
          "valueSetReference" : {
            "reference" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/ValueSet/observation-codes"
          }
        },
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "workflow",
            "map" : "Event.code"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "sct-concept",
            "map" : "< 363787002 |Observable entity| OR < 386053000 |Evaluation procedure|"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "v2",
            "map" : "OBX-3"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "code"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "sct-attr",
            "map" : "116680003 |Is a|"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "w5",
            "map" : "what"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.subject",
        "path" : "Observation.subject",
        "short" : "Who and/or what this is about",
        "definition" : "The patient, or group of patients, location, or device whose characteristics (direct or indirect) are described by the observation and into whose record the observation is placed.  Comments: Indirect characteristics may be those of a specimen, fetus, donor,  other observer (for example a relative or EMT), or any observation made about the subject.",
        "comment" : "One would expect this element to be a cardinality  of 1..1.  The only circumstance in which the subject can be missing is when the observation is made by a device that does not know the patient. In this case, the observation SHALL be matched to a patient through some context/channel matching technique, and at this point, the observation should be updated.\r\rIf the target of the observation is different than the subject, the general extension [observation-focal-subject](http://hl7.org/fhir/STU3/extension-observation-focal-subject.html).  may be used.  However, the distinction between the patient's own value for an observation versus that of the fetus, or the donor or blood product unit, etc., are often specified in the observation code.",
        "requirements" : "Observations have no value if you don't know who or what they're about.",
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "1",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Observation.subject",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "1"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "Reference",
            "targetProfile" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Patient"
          },
          {
            "code" : "Reference",
            "targetProfile" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Group"
          },
          {
            "code" : "Reference",
            "targetProfile" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Device"
          },
          {
            "code" : "Reference",
            "targetProfile" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Location"
          }
        ],
        "isSummary" : true,
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "workflow",
            "map" : "Event.subject"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "v2",
            "map" : "PID-3"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "participation[typeCode=SBJ]"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "w5",
            "map" : "who.focus"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.context",
        "path" : "Observation.context",
        "short" : "Healthcare event during which this observation is made",
        "definition" : "The healthcare event  (e.g. a patient and healthcare provider interaction) during which this observation is made.",
        "comment" : "This will typically be the encounter the event occurred within, but some events may be initiated prior to or after the official completion of an encounter or episode but still be tied to the context of the encounter or episode (e.g. pre-admission lab tests).",
        "requirements" : "For some observations it may be important to know the link between an observation and a particular encounter.",
        "alias" : [
          "Encounter"
        ],
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "1",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Observation.context",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "1"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "Reference",
            "targetProfile" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Encounter"
          },
          {
            "code" : "Reference",
            "targetProfile" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/EpisodeOfCare"
          }
        ],
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "workflow",
            "map" : "Event.context"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "v2",
            "map" : "PV1"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "inboundRelationship[typeCode=COMP].source[classCode=ENC, moodCode=EVN]"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "w5",
            "map" : "context"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.effective[x]",
        "path" : "Observation.effective[x]",
        "short" : "Clinically relevant time/time-period for observation",
        "definition" : "The time or time-period the observed value is asserted as being true. For biological subjects - e.g. human patients - this is usually called the \"physiologically relevant time\". This is usually either the time of the procedure or of specimen collection, but very often the source of the date/time is not known, only the date/time itself.",
        "comment" : "At least a date should be present unless this observation is a historical report.",
        "requirements" : "Knowing when an observation was deemed true is important to its relevance as well as determining trends.",
        "alias" : [
          "Occurrence"
        ],
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "1",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Observation.effective[x]",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "1"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "dateTime"
          },
          {
            "code" : "Period"
          }
        ],
        "isSummary" : true,
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "workflow",
            "map" : "Event.occurrence[x]"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "v2",
            "map" : "OBX-14, and/or OBX-19 after v2.4  (depends on who observation made)"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "effectiveTime"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "w5",
            "map" : "when.done"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.issued",
        "path" : "Observation.issued",
        "short" : "Date/Time this was made available",
        "definition" : "The date and time this observation was made available to providers, typically after the results have been reviewed and verified.",
        "comment" : "Updated when the result is updated.",
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "1",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Observation.issued",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "1"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "instant"
          }
        ],
        "isSummary" : true,
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "v2",
            "map" : "OBR.22 (or MSH.7), or perhaps OBX-19 (depends on who observation made)"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "participation[typeCode=AUT].time"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "w5",
            "map" : "when.recorded"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.performer",
        "path" : "Observation.performer",
        "short" : "Who is responsible for the observation",
        "definition" : "Who was responsible for asserting the observed value as \"true\".",
        "requirements" : "May give a degree of confidence in the observation and also indicates where follow-up questions should be directed.",
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "*",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Observation.performer",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "*"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "Reference",
            "targetProfile" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Practitioner"
          },
          {
            "code" : "Reference",
            "targetProfile" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Organization"
          },
          {
            "code" : "Reference",
            "targetProfile" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Patient"
          },
          {
            "code" : "Reference",
            "targetProfile" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/RelatedPerson"
          }
        ],
        "isSummary" : true,
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "workflow",
            "map" : "Event.performer"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "v2",
            "map" : "OBX.15 / (Practitioner)  OBX-16,  PRT-5:PRT-4='RO' /  (Device)  OBX-18 , PRT-10:PRT-4='EQUIP' / (Organization)  OBX-23,  PRT-8:PRT-4='PO'"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "participation[typeCode=PRF]"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "w5",
            "map" : "who.actor"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.value[x]",
        "path" : "Observation.value[x]",
        "short" : "Actual result",
        "definition" : "The information determined as a result of making the observation, if the information has a simple value.",
        "comment" : "Normally, an observation will have either a single value or a set of related observations. A few observations (e.g. Apgar score) may have both a value and related observations (for an Apgar score, the observations from which the measure is derived). If a value is present, the datatype for this element should be determined by Observation.code. This element has a variable name depending on the type as follows: valueQuantity, valueCodeableConcept, valueString, valueBoolean, valueRange, valueRatio, valueSampledData, valueAttachment, valueTime, valueDateTime, or valuePeriod. (The name format is \"'value' + the type name\" with a capital on the first letter of the type).\r\r\rIf the data element is usually coded or if the type associated with the Observation.value defines a coded value, use CodeableConcept instead of string datatype even if the value is uncoded text.  A value set is bound to the ValueCodeableConcept element.    For further discussion and examples see the  [notes section](http://hl7.org/fhir/STU3/observation.html#notes) below.",
        "requirements" : "An observation exists to have a value, though it may not if it is in error, or if it represents a group of observations.",
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "1",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Observation.value[x]",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "1"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "Quantity"
          },
          {
            "code" : "CodeableConcept"
          },
          {
            "code" : "string"
          },
          {
            "code" : "boolean"
          },
          {
            "code" : "Range"
          },
          {
            "code" : "Ratio"
          },
          {
            "code" : "SampledData"
          },
          {
            "code" : "Attachment"
          },
          {
            "code" : "time"
          },
          {
            "code" : "dateTime"
          },
          {
            "code" : "Period"
          }
        ],
        "condition" : [
          "obs-7"
        ],
        "isSummary" : true,
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "workflow",
            "map" : "Event.notDone, Event.notDoneReason  (maps to valeu[x] or dataAbsentReason)"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "sct-concept",
            "map" : "< 441742003 |Evaluation finding|"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "v2",
            "map" : "OBX.2, OBX.5, OBX.6"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "value"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "sct-attr",
            "map" : "363714003 |Interprets|"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.dataAbsentReason",
        "path" : "Observation.dataAbsentReason",
        "short" : "Why the result is missing",
        "definition" : "Provides a reason why the expected value in the element Observation.value[x] is missing.",
        "comment" : "Null or exceptional values can be represented two ways in FHIR Observations.  One way is to simply include them in the value set and represent the exceptions in the value.  For example, measurement values for a serology test could be  \"detected\", \"not detected\", \"inconclusive\", or  \"specimen unsatisfactory\".   The alternate way is to use the value element for actual observations and use the explicit dataAbsentReason element to record exceptional values.  For example, the dataAbsentReason code \"error\" could be used when the measurement was not completed. Note that an observation may only be reported if there are values to report. For example differential cell counts values may be reported only when > 0.  Because of these options, use-case agreements are required to interpret general observations for null or exceptional values.",
        "requirements" : "For many results it is necessary to handle exceptional values in measurements.",
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "1",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Observation.dataAbsentReason",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "1"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "CodeableConcept"
          }
        ],
        "condition" : [
          "obs-6"
        ],
        "binding" : {
          "extension" : [
            {
              "url" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/elementdefinition-bindingName",
              "valueString" : "ObservationValueAbsentReason"
            }
          ],
          "strength" : "extensible",
          "description" : "Codes specifying why the result (Observation.value[x]) is missing.",
          "valueSetReference" : {
            "reference" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/ValueSet/observation-valueabsentreason"
          }
        },
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "workflow",
            "map" : "Event.notDone, Event.notDoneReason  (maps to valeu[x] or dataAbsentReason)"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "v2",
            "map" : "N/A"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "value.nullFlavor"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.interpretation",
        "path" : "Observation.interpretation",
        "short" : "High, low, normal, etc.",
        "definition" : "The assessment made based on the result of the observation.  Intended as a simple compact code often placed adjacent to the result value in reports and flow sheets to signal the meaning/normalcy status of the result. Otherwise known as abnormal flag.",
        "requirements" : "For some results, particularly numeric results, an interpretation is necessary to fully understand the significance of a result.",
        "alias" : [
          "Abnormal Flag"
        ],
        "min" : 1,
        "max" : "1",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Observation.interpretation",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "1"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "CodeableConcept"
          }
        ],
        "mustSupport" : true,
        "binding" : {
          "extension" : [
            {
              "url" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/elementdefinition-bindingName",
              "valueString" : "ObservationInterpretation"
            }
          ],
          "strength" : "extensible",
          "description" : "Codes identifying interpretations of observations.",
          "valueSetReference" : {
            "reference" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/ValueSet/observation-interpretation"
          }
        },
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "sct-concept",
            "map" : "< 260245000 |Findings values|"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "v2",
            "map" : "OBX-8"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "interpretationCode"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "sct-attr",
            "map" : "363713009 |Has interpretation|"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.comment",
        "path" : "Observation.comment",
        "short" : "Comments about result",
        "definition" : "May include statements about significant, unexpected or unreliable values, or information about the source of the value where this may be relevant to the interpretation of the result.",
        "requirements" : "Need to be able to provide free text additional information.",
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "1",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Observation.comment",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "1"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "string"
          }
        ],
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "workflow",
            "map" : "Event.note"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "v2",
            "map" : "NTE.3 (partner NTE to OBX, or sometimes another (child?) OBX)"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "subjectOf.observationEvent[code=\"annotation\"].value"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.bodySite",
        "path" : "Observation.bodySite",
        "short" : "Observed body part",
        "definition" : "Indicates the site on the subject's body where the observation was made (i.e. the target site).",
        "comment" : "Only used if not implicit in code found in Observation.code.  In many systems, this may be represented as a related observation instead of an inline component.   If the use case requires BodySite to be handled as a separate resource (e.g. to identify and track separately) then use the standard extension[ body-site-instance](http://hl7.org/fhir/STU3/extension-body-site-instance.html).",
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "1",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Observation.bodySite",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "1"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "CodeableConcept"
          }
        ],
        "binding" : {
          "extension" : [
            {
              "url" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/elementdefinition-bindingName",
              "valueString" : "BodySite"
            }
          ],
          "strength" : "example",
          "description" : "Codes describing anatomical locations. May include laterality.",
          "valueSetReference" : {
            "reference" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/ValueSet/body-site"
          }
        },
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "sct-concept",
            "map" : "< 123037004 |Body structure|"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "v2",
            "map" : "OBX-20"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "targetSiteCode"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "sct-attr",
            "map" : "718497002 |Inherent location|"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.method",
        "path" : "Observation.method",
        "short" : "How it was done",
        "definition" : "Indicates the mechanism used to perform the observation.",
        "comment" : "Only used if not implicit in code for Observation.code.",
        "requirements" : "In some cases, method can impact results and is thus used for determining whether results can be compared or determining significance of results.",
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "1",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Observation.method",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "1"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "CodeableConcept"
          }
        ],
        "binding" : {
          "extension" : [
            {
              "url" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/elementdefinition-bindingName",
              "valueString" : "ObservationMethod"
            }
          ],
          "strength" : "example",
          "description" : "Methods for simple observations.",
          "valueSetReference" : {
            "reference" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/ValueSet/observation-methods"
          }
        },
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "v2",
            "map" : "OBX-17"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "methodCode"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.specimen",
        "path" : "Observation.specimen",
        "short" : "Specimen used for this observation",
        "definition" : "The specimen that was used when this observation was made.",
        "comment" : "Should only be used if not implicit in code found in `Observation.code`.  Observations are not made on specimens themselves; they are made on a subject, but in many cases by the means of a specimen. Note that although specimens are often involved, they are not always tracked and reported explicitly. Also note that observation resources may be used in contexts that track the specimen explicitly (e.g. Diagnostic Report).",
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "1",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Observation.specimen",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "1"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "Reference",
            "targetProfile" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Specimen"
          }
        ],
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "sct-concept",
            "map" : "< 123038009 |Specimen|"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "v2",
            "map" : "SPM segment"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "participation[typeCode=SPC].specimen"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "sct-attr",
            "map" : "704319004 |Inherent in|"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.device",
        "path" : "Observation.device",
        "short" : "(Measurement) Device",
        "definition" : "The device used to generate the observation data.",
        "comment" : "An extension should be used if further typing of the device is needed.  Devices used to support obtaining an observation can be represented using either an extension or through the Observation.related element.",
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "1",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Observation.device",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "1"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "Reference",
            "targetProfile" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Device"
          },
          {
            "code" : "Reference",
            "targetProfile" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/DeviceMetric"
          }
        ],
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "sct-concept",
            "map" : "< 49062001 |Device|"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "v2",
            "map" : "OBX-17 / PRT -10"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "participation[typeCode=DEV]"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "sct-attr",
            "map" : "424226004 |Using device|"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.referenceRange",
        "path" : "Observation.referenceRange",
        "short" : "Provides guide for interpretation",
        "definition" : "Guidance on how to interpret the value by comparison to a normal or recommended range.",
        "comment" : "Most observations only have one generic reference range. Systems MAY choose to restrict to only supplying the relevant reference range based on knowledge about the patient (e.g., specific to the patient's age, gender, weight and other factors), but this may not be possible or appropriate. Whenever more than one reference range is supplied, the differences between them SHOULD be provided in the reference range and/or age properties.",
        "requirements" : "Knowing what values are considered \"normal\" can help evaluate the significance of a particular result. Need to be able to provide multiple reference ranges for different contexts.",
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "*",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Observation.referenceRange",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "*"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "BackboneElement"
          }
        ],
        "constraint" : [
          {
            "key" : "ele-1",
            "severity" : "error",
            "human" : "All FHIR elements must have a @value or children",
            "expression" : "hasValue() | (children().count() > id.count())",
            "xpath" : "@value|f:*|h:div",
            "source" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Element"
          },
          {
            "key" : "obs-3",
            "severity" : "error",
            "human" : "Must have at least a low or a high or text",
            "expression" : "low.exists() or high.exists() or text.exists()",
            "xpath" : "(exists(f:low) or exists(f:high)or exists(f:text))",
            "source" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Observation"
          }
        ],
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "v2",
            "map" : "OBX.7"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "outboundRelationship[typeCode=REFV]/target[classCode=OBS, moodCode=EVN]"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.referenceRange.id",
        "path" : "Observation.referenceRange.id",
        "representation" : [
          "xmlAttr"
        ],
        "short" : "xml:id (or equivalent in JSON)",
        "definition" : "unique id for the element within a resource (for internal references). This may be any string value that does not contain spaces.",
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "1",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Element.id",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "1"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "string"
          }
        ],
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "n/a"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.referenceRange.extension",
        "path" : "Observation.referenceRange.extension",
        "short" : "Additional Content defined by implementations",
        "definition" : "May be used to represent additional information that is not part of the basic definition of the element. In order to make the use of extensions safe and manageable, there is a strict set of governance  applied to the definition and use of extensions. Though any implementer is allowed to define an extension, there is a set of requirements that SHALL be met as part of the definition of the extension.",
        "comment" : "There can be no stigma associated with the use of extensions by any application, project, or standard - regardless of the institution or jurisdiction that uses or defines the extensions.  The use of extensions is what allows the FHIR specification to retain a core level of simplicity for everyone.",
        "alias" : [
          "extensions",
          "user content"
        ],
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "*",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Element.extension",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "*"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "Extension"
          }
        ],
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "n/a"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.referenceRange.modifierExtension",
        "path" : "Observation.referenceRange.modifierExtension",
        "short" : "Extensions that cannot be ignored",
        "definition" : "May be used to represent additional information that is not part of the basic definition of the element, and that modifies the understanding of the element that contains it. Usually modifier elements provide negation or qualification. In order to make the use of extensions safe and manageable, there is a strict set of governance applied to the definition and use of extensions. Though any implementer is allowed to define an extension, there is a set of requirements that SHALL be met as part of the definition of the extension. Applications processing a resource are required to check for modifier extensions.",
        "comment" : "There can be no stigma associated with the use of extensions by any application, project, or standard - regardless of the institution or jurisdiction that uses or defines the extensions.  The use of extensions is what allows the FHIR specification to retain a core level of simplicity for everyone.",
        "alias" : [
          "extensions",
          "user content",
          "modifiers"
        ],
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "*",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "BackboneElement.modifierExtension",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "*"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "Extension"
          }
        ],
        "isModifier" : true,
        "isSummary" : true,
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "N/A"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.referenceRange.low",
        "path" : "Observation.referenceRange.low",
        "short" : "Low Range, if relevant",
        "definition" : "The value of the low bound of the reference range.  The low bound of the reference range endpoint is inclusive of the value (e.g.  reference range is >=5 - <=9).   If the low bound is omitted,  it is assumed to be meaningless (e.g. reference range is <=2.3).",
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "1",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Observation.referenceRange.low",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "1"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "Quantity",
            "profile" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/SimpleQuantity"
          }
        ],
        "condition" : [
          "obs-3"
        ],
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "v2",
            "map" : "OBX-7"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "value:IVL_PQ.low"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.referenceRange.high",
        "path" : "Observation.referenceRange.high",
        "short" : "High Range, if relevant",
        "definition" : "The value of the high bound of the reference range.  The high bound of the reference range endpoint is inclusive of the value (e.g.  reference range is >=5 - <=9).   If the high bound is omitted,  it is assumed to be meaningless (e.g. reference range is >= 2.3).",
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "1",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Observation.referenceRange.high",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "1"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "Quantity",
            "profile" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/SimpleQuantity"
          }
        ],
        "condition" : [
          "obs-3"
        ],
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "v2",
            "map" : "OBX-7"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "value:IVL_PQ.high"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.referenceRange.type",
        "path" : "Observation.referenceRange.type",
        "short" : "Reference range qualifier",
        "definition" : "Codes to indicate the what part of the targeted reference population it applies to. For example, the normal or therapeutic range.",
        "comment" : "This SHOULD be populated if there is more than one range.  If this element is not present then the normal range is assumed.",
        "requirements" : "Need to be able to say what kind of reference range this is - normal, recommended, therapeutic, etc,  - for proper interpretation.",
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "1",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Observation.referenceRange.type",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "1"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "CodeableConcept"
          }
        ],
        "binding" : {
          "extension" : [
            {
              "url" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/elementdefinition-bindingName",
              "valueString" : "ObservationRangeMeaning"
            }
          ],
          "strength" : "extensible",
          "description" : "Code for the meaning of a reference range.",
          "valueSetReference" : {
            "reference" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/ValueSet/referencerange-meaning"
          }
        },
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "sct-concept",
            "map" : "< 260245000 |Findings values| OR  \r< 365860008 |General clinical state finding| \rOR \r< 250171008 |Clinical history or observation findings| OR  \r< 415229000 |Racial group| OR \r< 365400002 |Finding of puberty stage| OR\r< 443938003 |Procedure carried out on subject|"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "v2",
            "map" : "OBX-10"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "interpretationCode"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.referenceRange.appliesTo",
        "path" : "Observation.referenceRange.appliesTo",
        "short" : "Reference range population",
        "definition" : "Codes to indicate the target population this reference range applies to.  For example, a reference range may be based on the normal population or a particular sex or race.",
        "comment" : "This SHOULD be populated if there is more than one range.  If this element is not present then the normal population is assumed.",
        "requirements" : "Need to be able to identify the target population for proper interpretation.",
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "*",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Observation.referenceRange.appliesTo",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "*"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "CodeableConcept"
          }
        ],
        "binding" : {
          "extension" : [
            {
              "url" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/elementdefinition-bindingName",
              "valueString" : "ObservationRangeType"
            }
          ],
          "strength" : "example",
          "description" : "Codes identifying the population the reference range applies to.",
          "valueSetReference" : {
            "reference" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/ValueSet/referencerange-appliesto"
          }
        },
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "sct-concept",
            "map" : "< 260245000 |Findings values| OR  \r< 365860008 |General clinical state finding| \rOR \r< 250171008 |Clinical history or observation findings| OR  \r< 415229000 |Racial group| OR \r< 365400002 |Finding of puberty stage| OR\r< 443938003 |Procedure carried out on subject|"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "v2",
            "map" : "OBX-10"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "interpretationCode"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.referenceRange.age",
        "path" : "Observation.referenceRange.age",
        "short" : "Applicable age range, if relevant",
        "definition" : "The age at which this reference range is applicable. This is a neonatal age (e.g. number of weeks at term) if the meaning says so.",
        "requirements" : "Some analytes vary greatly over age.",
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "1",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Observation.referenceRange.age",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "1"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "Range"
          }
        ],
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "outboundRelationship[typeCode=PRCN].targetObservationCriterion[code=\"age\"].value"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.referenceRange.text",
        "path" : "Observation.referenceRange.text",
        "short" : "Text based reference range in an observation",
        "definition" : "Text based reference range in an observation which may be used when a quantitative range is not appropriate for an observation.  An example would be a reference value of \"Negative\" or a list or table of 'normals'.",
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "1",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Observation.referenceRange.text",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "1"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "string"
          }
        ],
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "v2",
            "map" : "OBX-7"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "value:ST"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.related",
        "path" : "Observation.related",
        "short" : "Resource related to this observation",
        "definition" : "A  reference to another resource (usually another Observation) whose relationship is defined by the relationship type code.",
        "comment" : "For a discussion on the ways Observations can assembled in groups together see [Notes below](http://hl7.org/fhir/STU3/observation.html#4.20.4).",
        "requirements" : "Normally, an observation will have either a value or a set of related observations. A few observations (e.g. Apgar score) may have both a value and a set of related observations or sometimes a QuestionnaireResponse from which the measure is derived.",
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "*",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Observation.related",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "*"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "BackboneElement"
          }
        ],
        "constraint" : [
          {
            "key" : "ele-1",
            "severity" : "error",
            "human" : "All FHIR elements must have a @value or children",
            "expression" : "hasValue() | (children().count() > id.count())",
            "xpath" : "@value|f:*|h:div",
            "source" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Element"
          }
        ],
        "isSummary" : true,
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "v2",
            "map" : "Relationships established by OBX-4 usage"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "outBoundRelationship"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.related.id",
        "path" : "Observation.related.id",
        "representation" : [
          "xmlAttr"
        ],
        "short" : "xml:id (or equivalent in JSON)",
        "definition" : "unique id for the element within a resource (for internal references). This may be any string value that does not contain spaces.",
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "1",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Element.id",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "1"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "string"
          }
        ],
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "n/a"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.related.extension",
        "path" : "Observation.related.extension",
        "short" : "Additional Content defined by implementations",
        "definition" : "May be used to represent additional information that is not part of the basic definition of the element. In order to make the use of extensions safe and manageable, there is a strict set of governance  applied to the definition and use of extensions. Though any implementer is allowed to define an extension, there is a set of requirements that SHALL be met as part of the definition of the extension.",
        "comment" : "There can be no stigma associated with the use of extensions by any application, project, or standard - regardless of the institution or jurisdiction that uses or defines the extensions.  The use of extensions is what allows the FHIR specification to retain a core level of simplicity for everyone.",
        "alias" : [
          "extensions",
          "user content"
        ],
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "*",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Element.extension",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "*"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "Extension"
          }
        ],
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "n/a"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.related.modifierExtension",
        "path" : "Observation.related.modifierExtension",
        "short" : "Extensions that cannot be ignored",
        "definition" : "May be used to represent additional information that is not part of the basic definition of the element, and that modifies the understanding of the element that contains it. Usually modifier elements provide negation or qualification. In order to make the use of extensions safe and manageable, there is a strict set of governance applied to the definition and use of extensions. Though any implementer is allowed to define an extension, there is a set of requirements that SHALL be met as part of the definition of the extension. Applications processing a resource are required to check for modifier extensions.",
        "comment" : "There can be no stigma associated with the use of extensions by any application, project, or standard - regardless of the institution or jurisdiction that uses or defines the extensions.  The use of extensions is what allows the FHIR specification to retain a core level of simplicity for everyone.",
        "alias" : [
          "extensions",
          "user content",
          "modifiers"
        ],
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "*",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "BackboneElement.modifierExtension",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "*"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "Extension"
          }
        ],
        "isModifier" : true,
        "isSummary" : true,
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "N/A"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.related.type",
        "path" : "Observation.related.type",
        "short" : "has-member | derived-from | sequel-to | replaces | qualified-by | interfered-by",
        "definition" : "A code specifying the kind of relationship that exists with the target resource.",
        "comment" : "The \"derived-from\" type is the only logical choice when referencing the QuestionnaireAnswer resource.",
        "requirements" : "A relationship type SHOULD be provided.",
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "1",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Observation.related.type",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "1"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "code"
          }
        ],
        "binding" : {
          "extension" : [
            {
              "url" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/elementdefinition-bindingName",
              "valueString" : "ObservationRelationshipType"
            }
          ],
          "strength" : "required",
          "description" : "Codes specifying how two observations are related.",
          "valueSetReference" : {
            "reference" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/ValueSet/observation-relationshiptypes"
          }
        },
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "v2",
            "map" : "N/A"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : ".typeCode"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.related.target",
        "path" : "Observation.related.target",
        "short" : "Resource that is related to this one",
        "definition" : "A reference to the observation or [QuestionnaireResponse](http://hl7.org/fhir/STU3/questionnaireresponse.html#) resource that is related to this observation.",
        "min" : 1,
        "max" : "1",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Observation.related.target",
          "min" : 1,
          "max" : "1"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "Reference",
            "targetProfile" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Observation"
          },
          {
            "code" : "Reference",
            "targetProfile" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/QuestionnaireResponse"
          },
          {
            "code" : "Reference",
            "targetProfile" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Sequence"
          }
        ],
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : ".targetObservation"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.component",
        "path" : "Observation.component",
        "short" : "Component results",
        "definition" : "Some observations have multiple component observations.  These component observations are expressed as separate code value pairs that share the same attributes.  Examples include systolic and diastolic component observations for blood pressure measurement and multiple component observations for genetics observations.",
        "comment" : "For a discussion on the ways Observations can be assembled in groups together see [Notes](http://hl7.org/fhir/STU3/observation.html#notes) below.",
        "requirements" : "Component observations share the same attributes in the Observation resource as the primary observation and are always treated a part of a single observation (they are not separable).   However, the reference range for the primary observation value is not inherited by the component values and is required when appropriate for each component observation.",
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "*",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Observation.component",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "*"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "BackboneElement"
          }
        ],
        "constraint" : [
          {
            "key" : "ele-1",
            "severity" : "error",
            "human" : "All FHIR elements must have a @value or children",
            "expression" : "hasValue() | (children().count() > id.count())",
            "xpath" : "@value|f:*|h:div",
            "source" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Element"
          }
        ],
        "isSummary" : true,
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "v2",
            "map" : "containment by OBX-4?"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "outBoundRelationship[typeCode=COMP]"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.component.id",
        "path" : "Observation.component.id",
        "representation" : [
          "xmlAttr"
        ],
        "short" : "xml:id (or equivalent in JSON)",
        "definition" : "unique id for the element within a resource (for internal references). This may be any string value that does not contain spaces.",
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "1",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Element.id",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "1"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "string"
          }
        ],
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "n/a"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.component.extension",
        "path" : "Observation.component.extension",
        "short" : "Additional Content defined by implementations",
        "definition" : "May be used to represent additional information that is not part of the basic definition of the element. In order to make the use of extensions safe and manageable, there is a strict set of governance  applied to the definition and use of extensions. Though any implementer is allowed to define an extension, there is a set of requirements that SHALL be met as part of the definition of the extension.",
        "comment" : "There can be no stigma associated with the use of extensions by any application, project, or standard - regardless of the institution or jurisdiction that uses or defines the extensions.  The use of extensions is what allows the FHIR specification to retain a core level of simplicity for everyone.",
        "alias" : [
          "extensions",
          "user content"
        ],
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "*",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Element.extension",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "*"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "Extension"
          }
        ],
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "n/a"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.component.modifierExtension",
        "path" : "Observation.component.modifierExtension",
        "short" : "Extensions that cannot be ignored",
        "definition" : "May be used to represent additional information that is not part of the basic definition of the element, and that modifies the understanding of the element that contains it. Usually modifier elements provide negation or qualification. In order to make the use of extensions safe and manageable, there is a strict set of governance applied to the definition and use of extensions. Though any implementer is allowed to define an extension, there is a set of requirements that SHALL be met as part of the definition of the extension. Applications processing a resource are required to check for modifier extensions.",
        "comment" : "There can be no stigma associated with the use of extensions by any application, project, or standard - regardless of the institution or jurisdiction that uses or defines the extensions.  The use of extensions is what allows the FHIR specification to retain a core level of simplicity for everyone.",
        "alias" : [
          "extensions",
          "user content",
          "modifiers"
        ],
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "*",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "BackboneElement.modifierExtension",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "*"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "Extension"
          }
        ],
        "isModifier" : true,
        "isSummary" : true,
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "N/A"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.component.code",
        "path" : "Observation.component.code",
        "short" : "Type of component observation (code / type)",
        "definition" : "Describes what was observed. Sometimes this is called the observation \"code\".",
        "requirements" : "Knowing what kind of observation is being made is essential to understanding the observation.",
        "min" : 1,
        "max" : "1",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Observation.component.code",
          "min" : 1,
          "max" : "1"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "CodeableConcept"
          }
        ],
        "isSummary" : true,
        "binding" : {
          "extension" : [
            {
              "url" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/elementdefinition-bindingName",
              "valueString" : "ObservationCode"
            }
          ],
          "strength" : "example",
          "description" : "Codes identifying names of simple observations.",
          "valueSetReference" : {
            "reference" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/ValueSet/observation-codes"
          }
        },
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "sct-concept",
            "map" : "< 363787002 |Observable entity| OR \r< 386053000 |Evaluation procedure|"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "v2",
            "map" : "OBX-3"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "code"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "w5",
            "map" : "what"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.component.value[x]",
        "path" : "Observation.component.value[x]",
        "short" : "Actual component result",
        "definition" : "The information determined as a result of making the observation, if the information has a simple value.",
        "comment" : "Normally, an observation will have either a single value or a set of related observations. A few observations (e.g. Apgar score) may have both a value and related observations (for an Apgar score, the observations from which the measure is derived). If a value is present, the datatype for this element should be determined by Observation.code. A CodeableConcept with just a text would be used instead of a string if the field was usually coded, or if the type associated with the Observation.code defines a coded value.   For boolean values use valueCodeableConcept and select codes from <http://hl7.org/fhir/ValueSet/v2-0136> (these \"yes/no\" concepts can be mapped to the display name \"true/false\" or other mutually exclusive terms that may be needed\").  The element, Observation.value[x], has a variable name depending on the type as follows: valueQuantity, valueCodeableConcept, valueRatio, valueChoice, valuePeriod, valueSampleData, or valueString (the name format is \"'value' + the type name\" with a capital on the first letter of the type).",
        "requirements" : "An observation exists to have a value, though it may not if it is in error, or if it represents a group of observations.",
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "1",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Observation.component.value[x]",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "1"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "Quantity"
          },
          {
            "code" : "CodeableConcept"
          },
          {
            "code" : "string"
          },
          {
            "code" : "Range"
          },
          {
            "code" : "Ratio"
          },
          {
            "code" : "SampledData"
          },
          {
            "code" : "Attachment"
          },
          {
            "code" : "time"
          },
          {
            "code" : "dateTime"
          },
          {
            "code" : "Period"
          }
        ],
        "isSummary" : true,
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "sct-concept",
            "map" : "363714003 |Interprets| < 441742003 |Evaluation finding|"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "v2",
            "map" : "OBX.2, OBX.5, OBX.6"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "value"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "sct-attr",
            "map" : "363714003 |Interprets|"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.component.dataAbsentReason",
        "path" : "Observation.component.dataAbsentReason",
        "short" : "Why the component result is missing",
        "definition" : "Provides a reason why the expected value in the element Observation.value[x] is missing.",
        "comment" : "\"Null\" or exceptional values can be represented two ways in FHIR Observations.  One way is to simply include them in the value set and represent the exceptions in the value.  For example, measurement values for a serology test could be  \"detected\", \"not detected\", \"inconclusive\", or  \"test not done\".   The alternate way is to use the value element for actual observations and use the explicit dataAbsentReason element to record exceptional values.  For example, the dataAbsentReason code \"error\" could be used when the measurement was not completed.  Because of these options, use-case agreements are required to interpret general observations for exceptional values.",
        "requirements" : "For many results it is necessary to handle exceptional values in measurements.",
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "1",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Observation.component.dataAbsentReason",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "1"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "CodeableConcept"
          }
        ],
        "condition" : [
          "obs-6"
        ],
        "binding" : {
          "extension" : [
            {
              "url" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/elementdefinition-bindingName",
              "valueString" : "ObservationValueAbsentReason"
            }
          ],
          "strength" : "extensible",
          "description" : "Codes specifying why the result (Observation.value[x]) is missing.",
          "valueSetReference" : {
            "reference" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/ValueSet/observation-valueabsentreason"
          }
        },
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "v2",
            "map" : "N/A"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "value.nullFlavor"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.component.interpretation",
        "path" : "Observation.component.interpretation",
        "short" : "High, low, normal, etc.",
        "definition" : "The assessment made based on the result of the observation.  Intended as a simple compact code often placed adjacent to the result value in reports and flow sheets to signal the meaning/normalcy status of the result. Otherwise known as abnormal flag.",
        "comment" : "The component interpretation applies only to the individual component value.  For an overall interpretation all components together use thes Observation.interpretation element.",
        "requirements" : "For some results, particularly numeric results, an interpretation is necessary to fully understand the significance of a result.",
        "alias" : [
          "Abnormal Flag"
        ],
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "1",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Observation.component.interpretation",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "1"
        },
        "type" : [
          {
            "code" : "CodeableConcept"
          }
        ],
        "binding" : {
          "extension" : [
            {
              "url" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/elementdefinition-bindingName",
              "valueString" : "ObservationInterpretation"
            }
          ],
          "strength" : "extensible",
          "description" : "Codes identifying interpretations of observations.",
          "valueSetReference" : {
            "reference" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/ValueSet/observation-interpretation"
          }
        },
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "sct-concept",
            "map" : "< 260245000 |Findings values|"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "v2",
            "map" : "OBX-8"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "interpretationCode"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "sct-attr",
            "map" : "363713009 |Has interpretation|"
          }
        ]
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.component.referenceRange",
        "path" : "Observation.component.referenceRange",
        "short" : "Provides guide for interpretation of component result",
        "definition" : "Guidance on how to interpret the value by comparison to a normal or recommended range.",
        "comment" : "Most observations only have one generic reference range. Systems MAY choose to restrict to only supplying the relevant reference range based on knowledge about the patient (e.g., specific to the patient's age, gender, weight and other factors), but this may not be possible or appropriate. Whenever more than one reference range is supplied, the differences between them SHOULD be provided in the reference range and/or age properties.",
        "requirements" : "Knowing what values are considered \"normal\" can help evaluate the significance of a particular result. Need to be able to provide multiple reference ranges for different contexts.",
        "min" : 0,
        "max" : "*",
        "base" : {
          "path" : "Observation.component.referenceRange",
          "min" : 0,
          "max" : "*"
        },
        "contentReference" : "http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Observation#Observation.referenceRange",
        "mapping" : [
          {
            "identity" : "v2",
            "map" : "OBX.7"
          },
          {
            "identity" : "rim",
            "map" : "outboundRelationship[typeCode=REFV]/target[classCode=OBS, moodCode=EVN]"
          }
        ]
      }
    ]
  },
  "differential" : {
    "element" : [
      {
        "id" : "Observation",
        "path" : "Observation",
        "mustSupport" : false
      },
      {
        "id" : "Observation.interpretation",
        "path" : "Observation.interpretation",
        "min" : 1,
        "max" : "1",
        "mustSupport" : true
      }
    ]
  }
}