QI-Core Implementation Guide
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QI-Core Implementation Guide, published by HL7 International / Clinical Quality Information. This guide is not an authorized publication; it is the continuous build for version 6.0.0 built by the FHIR (HL7® FHIR® Standard) CI Build. This version is based on the current content of https://github.com/HL7/fhir-qi-core/ and changes regularly. See the Directory of published versions

Quality Data Model (QDM)v5.6 to QI-Core R6 Mapping

This page is part of the Quality Improvement Core Framework (v6.0.0: STU 6) based on FHIR R4. This is the current published version. For a full list of available versions, see the Directory of published versions.

Introduction

The CMS Quality Data Model (QDM) has been used to express electronic clinical quality measures (eCQMs) in HQMF since 2012. QDM is a conceptual data model that has evolved based on feedback, testing and use. The current version (Version 5.6 for eCQM implementation 2023, 2024 and 2025) and QDM’s complete history can be found on the eCQI Resource Center. Most of the QDM concepts map directly to US Core R5, FHIR R4 resources or extensions represented in QI-Core.

This version of QI-Core updates mappings from QI-Core to QDM based on US Core STU6 (v6.1.0) and FHIR R4 and QDM version 5.6. Reviewers can evaluate the comparisons, represented in the Mappings table for each QI-Core resource. Each mapping table shows the QI-Core concept in the right-hand column and the corresponding QDM datatype(s) and attributes in the left-hand column. Only QI-Core metadata concepts represented in QDM are included in the mapping tables. The effort mapped the intended meaning of each QDM datatype and attribute to a QI-Core resource metadata element. In some cases, multiple QDM datatypes map to a single QI-Core resource as indicated in the QI-Core mapping table. Since QDM is a conceptual data model some of the elements may not have a direct mapping to a QI-Core profile or one of the items in its respective Key Element Table. Content in the QI-Core profile Key Element Table tabs is based on US Core 6.1.0 requirements and basic needs to express concepts driven by existing quality measurement and clinical decision support data retrieval.

In addition to the QI-Core to QDM comparisons presented with each QI-Core resource, this section of the implementation guide presents the mapping directly from QDM concepts. Thus, the IG provides a view of the mappings in both directions (QI-Core to QDM, and QDM to QI-Core). This section is divided into 55 sections, one for each QDM concept, or QDM datatype. Each QDM datatype includes a general description of the concept and a table mapping each of the QDM datatype-related attributes to QI-Core metadata elements. Refer to the eCQI Resource Center for the full QDM 5.6 documentation.

Change from QI-Core STU5 to QI-Core STU6

QI-Core builds upon US Core and new US Core STU6 (6.1.0) profiles include a number of changes that impact expression of requests for information. US Core STU6 also incorporates requirements of United States Core Data for Interoperability version 3. These include new observation profiles and addition of a MedicationDispense profile and a Specimen profile.

QI-Core addresses these changes as follows:

1) Observations

QI-Core STU 6 includes 21 profiles based on the FHIR Observation resource, some including specific QI-Core constraints added to US Core profiles, others used as specified by US Core. The following list should help determine which QI-Core observation profile to use with each QDM datatype. The subsequent mapping tables provide more detail about how to address these new profiles when converting measures from QDM to QI-Core.

a) QICore Simple Observation – used to capture any “simple” type of observation that is not classified as vital signs, laboratory, imaging, or other more specific observation types; generally used with QDM “Assessment, Performed”
b) QICore Observation Clinical Result – generally used with QDM “Diagnostic Study, Performed”; based on US Core 6.1.0 Observation Clinical Result, includes non-laboratory clinical test results and incorporates the previous Observation Imaging Result and Observation Clinical Test Result
c) QICore Laboratory Result Observation – generally used with QDM “Laboratory Test, Performed”
d) QICore Observation Screening Assessment – generally used with QDM “Assessment, Performed”
e) US Core Observation Occupation Profile – generally used with QDM “Assessment, Performed”
f) US Core Observation Pregnancy Intent Profile – generally used with QDM “Assessment, Performed”
g) US Core Observation Pregnancy Status Profile - generally used with QDM “Assessment, Performed”
h) US Core Observation Sexual Orientation Profile – generally used with QDM “Assessment, Performed”
i) US Core Smoking Status Observation Profile – generally used with QDM “Assessment, Performed”
j) US Core Pediatric Head Occipital-frontal Circumference Percentile Profile – generally used with QDM “Physical Exam, Performed”
k) US Core Blood Pressure Profile – generally used with QDM “Physical Exam, Performed”
l) US Core BMI Profile– generally used with QDM “Physical Exam, Performed”
m) US Core Body Height Profile – generally used with QDM “Physical Exam, Performed”
n) US Core Body Temperature Profile – generally used with QDM “Physical Exam, Performed”
o) US Core Body Weight Profile – generally used with QDM “Physical Exam, Performed”
p) US Core Head Circumference Profile – generally used with QDM “Physical Exam, Performed”
q) US Core Heart Rate Profile – generally used with QDM “Physical Exam, Performed”
r) US Core Pediatric BMI for Age Observation Profile – generally used with QDM “Physical Exam, Performed”
s) US Core Pediatric Weight for Height Observation Profile – generally used with QDM “Physical Exam, Performed”
t) US Core Pulse Oximetry Profile – generally used with QDM “Physical Exam, Performed”
u) US Core Respiratory Rate Profile – generally used with QDM “Physical Exam, Performed”

2) MedicationDispense – QI-Core STU6 Medication Dispense adds constraints to the new US Core STU6 Medication Dispense rather than the base FHIR R4 MedicationDispense.

Adverse Event

QDM defines Adverse Event as any untoward medical occurrence associated with the clinical care delivery, whether or not considered drug related. The concepts aligns with the FHIR R4 resource Adverse Event. The FHIR resource provides clearer expressivity as compared with QDM.

The HL7 Patient Care Workgroup documented some use cases and supporting information for using this resource; however, most adverse event information is more identifiable in clinical records as findings, conditions, or observations. Thus, measure developers may find more effective information retrieval by using the condition, simple observation, or specific observation profiles to identify triggers indicating potential adverse events. References for information regarding potential adverse event triggers: CMS Hospital-Acquired Condition Reduction Program. Also useful: Institute for Healthcare Improvement Trigger Tool for Measuring Adverse Drug Events (requires registration)

Much of the detail about adverse events is present in separate risk management systems based on incident reports rather than the electronic health record (EHR) except for some details in unstructured progress notes. For those using this “Adverse Event” QDM datatype, QDM includes an attribute code that represents the specific type of event that occurred, consistent with AdverseEvent.event.

QDM does not include an attribute to address the additional elements available in QI-Core: AdverseEvent.suspectEntity (the suspected cause), or the AdverseEvent.resultingCondition. As an example to differentiate these elements:

QDM version 5.6 (and earlier versions) only address one of these elements, the event. Therefore, QDM AdverseEvent code maps to AdverseEvent.event. Measure developers seeking to retrieve data about the cause of an AdverseEvent may be able to relate the occurrence timing of a potential causative event and the AdverseEvent.event timing. Further detail about the AdverseEvent will require use of FHIR or potentially a subsequent version of QDM after QDM 5.6.

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Adverse Event AdverseEvent  
  AdverseEvent.actuality Although not specified in QDM, QI-Core provides the ability to differentiate between potential versus actual events
QDM Attributes    
code AdverseEvent.event Type of the event itself in relation to the subject; reference SNOMED-CT event hierarchy to represent the event in an eCQM. Note: QDM does not include an attribute to address additional elements available in QI-Core: AdverseEvent.suspectEntity (the suspected cause), or the AdverseEvent.resultingCondition.
type AdverseEvent.category  
severity AdverseEvent.severity  
relevantdateTime AdverseEvent.date  
facilityLocations AdverseEvent.location  
authorDatetime AdverseEvent.recordedDate  
id AdverseEvent.id  
recorder AdverseEvent.recorder  
  AdverseEvent.suspectEntity.instance The actual instance of what caused the adverse event. May be a substance, medication, medication administration, medication statement or a device.

Allergy/Intolerance

Allergy is used to address immune-mediated reactions to a substance such as type 1 hypersensitivity reactions, other allergy-like reactions, including pseudo-allergy.

Intolerance is a record of a clinical assessment of a propensity, or a potential risk to an individual, to have a non-immune mediated adverse reaction on future exposure to the specified substance, or class of substance.

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Allergy/Intolerance AllergyIntolerance  
  AllergyIntolerance.clinicalStatus Identifies if active, inactive, resolved; while not a QDM attribute, this is an important element for retrieving active allergies or intolerances.
  AllergyIntolerance.type Defines difference between Allergy and Intolerance; while not a QDM attribute, this is an important element for differentiating between allergies and intolerances.
  AllergyIntolerance.verificationStatus Identifies if unconfirmed, confirmed, refuted, entered-in-error; while not a QDM attribute, this is an important element for retrieving confirmed allergies or intolerances.
  AllergyIntolerance.category Helpful to identify classes of potential allergens such as food, medication, environment, biologic; while not a QDM attribute, this may be a helpful element for some use cases.
QDM Attributes    
code AllergyIntolerance.code USCoreAllergySubstance; RxNorm for medication ingredients
id AllergyIntolerance.id  
prevalencePeriod AllergyIntolerance.onset[x] Prevalence Period start time maps to AllergyIntolerance.onset[x]. Implementers may need to “map” existing allergy onset timings (e.g., day, age, year, etc.) to a corresponding dateTime to allow calculation of measure or CDS expressions.
authorDatetime AllergyIntolerance.recordedDate Indicates when recorded in the record, not necessarily the onset date
type AllergyIntolerance.reaction.manifestation Clinical symptoms/signs associated with the event
severity AllergyIntolerance.reaction.severity Indicates seriousness, e.g., mild, moderate severe
  AllergyIntolerance.criticality Indicates potential for clinical harm, e.g., low, high, unable-to-assess; not present as an attribute in QDM but may be helpful for some use cases
recorder AllergyIntolerance.recorder The individual entering the data about the allergy or intolerance. Note this element is included in QDM but it is not included in the Key Element Table for QI-Core AllergyIntolerance as it does not have a clear use case; i.e., no existing measures or clinical decision support usage requires the recorder or even the asserter of the allergy or intolerance.

Assessment

QDM defines Assessment as a resource used to define specific observations that clinicians use to guide treatment of the patient. An assessment can be a single question, or observable entity with an expected response, an organized collection of questions intended to solicit information from patients, providers or other individuals, or a single observable entity that is part of such a collection of questions. In previous versions of QI-Core, QDM Assessment category mapped directly to QICore Observation. US Core STU6 includes a number of specific observation profiles such that there are now six profiles providing greater specificity in defining observations. QI-Core inherits five of the observation profiles directly from US Core as no additional constraints are necessary:

QI-Core adds additional constraints to the US Core Observation Screening Assessment and the US Core Simple Observation profiles. Thus, QI-Core profiles for these observations build on the US Core profiles:

  • QICore Observation Screening Assessment Profile – generally used with for evaluation surveys and assessment tools
  • QICore Simple Observation Profile – represents any type of observation that is not classified as vital signs, laboratory, imaging, or other more specific observation types. For example, gestational age at birth as a standalone observation (i.e., not part of a survey or assessment tool).

Assessment, Order

Assessment, Order uses the ServiceRequest resource. The codes for ordering specific observations should reference the code element specified in the respective profiles: QICore Observation Screening Assessment, QICore Simple Observation; US Core Observation Occupation, US Core Observation Pregnancy Intent, US Core Pregnancy Status, US Core Observation Sexual Orientation, or US Core Smoking Status Observation.

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Assessment, Order ServiceRequest  
  ServiceRequest.status Constrain to active, completed. While QDM does not have an attribute comparable to status, as a conceptual model, status is implied by the name “Assessment, Order” and “Assessment, Recommended” datatypes.
  ServiceRequest.intent Required to differentiate an order from a recommendation. The intent value set allows such differentiation using “order” for orders and “plan” for recommendation. Constrain only to “order” (include children: original-order, reflex-order, filler-order, instance-order)
QDM Attributes    
Code ServiceRequest.code What is requested, extensible binding to US Core Procedure Codes
id ServiceRequest.id  
Reason ServiceRequest.reasonCode Explanation/justification for procedure or service with extensible binding to US Core Condition Codes
Author dateTime ServiceRequest.authoredOn When the request transitioned to being actionable.
Negation Rationale See Below  
Requester ServiceRequest.requester Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM requester attribute was to designate the individual/organization responsible for reporting the measure results is the same individual/organization that requested the procedure or service. However, clinical software generally tracks the individual user entering data and linking that individual to a clinical role, a specialty, or an organization is not easily accomplished.
Negation Rationale for Assessment, Order

Use QICoreServiceNotRequested and reference the code element specified in the respective observation profile:

Assessment, Performed

QDM defines Assessment as a resource used to define specific observations that clinicians use to guide treatment of the patient. An assessment can be a single question, or observable entity with an expected response, an organized collection of questions intended to solicit information from patients, providers or other individuals, or a single observable entity that is part of such a collection of questions.

“Assessment, Performed” maps to the one of several QI-Core or US Core profiles as applicable for the information desired:

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Assessment, Performed: General Use Case Observation  
  Observation.category Category helps to narrow the request to the class of observation required to meet measure intent. Each QI-Core or US Core profile has a specific binding to concepts appropriate to the respective profile. Note that QDM does not have an attribute comparable to category, the element may be helpful in expressing a quality measure.
  Observation.status Constrain status to - final, amended, corrected. While QDM does not have an attribute comparable to status, as a conceptual model, status is implied by the name “Assessment, Performed” datatype.
QDM Attributes    
code Observation.code Note specific bindings based on the QI-Core or US Core profile used.
id Observation.id  
method Observation.method Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. Therefore, it is not in the profile Key Elements Table; it can be found in the Snapshot Table tab of the respective profiles.
relatedTo Observation.basedOn Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. Therefore, it is not in the profile Key Elements Table; it can be found in the Snapshot Table tab of the respective profiles.
  Observation.partOf A larger event of which this particular Observation is a component or step. For example, an observation as part of a procedure.
  Observation.derivedFrom Allows reference to the activity that led to the observation.
negationRationale See Below  
reason Observation.basedOn Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. Therefore, it is not in the profile Key Elements Table; it can be found in the Snapshot Table tab of the respective profiles.
result Observation.value[x]  
interpretation Observation.interpretation Explanation of significance of the observation result (e.g., critical, high, low)
relevantDatetime Observation.effective[x] dateTime Time observation occurred if a point in time.
relevantPeriod Observation.effective[x] Period Time observation occurred if it occurs over a period of time.
authorDatetime Observation.issued Time observation result made available.
component Observation.component Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. Many measures address components of a panel of simple observations as single elements. Note that the QICore Observation Screening Assessment Profile allows reference to components by identifying the parent screening assessment and using the Observation.hasMember element to reference the individual observations within the set. Therefore, component is not in the profile Key Elements Table; it can be found in the Snapshot Table tab of the respective profiles.
component.code Observation.component.code See comment about component.
component.result Observation.component.value[x] See comment about component.
performer Observation.performer Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM performer attribute was to designate the individual/organization responsible for reporting the measure results is the same individual/organization that performed the observation or task. However, clinical software generally tracks the individual user entering data and linking that individual to a clinical role, a specialty, or an organization is not easily accomplished.
Negation Rationale for Assessment, Performed

Use QICoreObservationCancelled and reference the code element specified in the respective observation profile:

Assessment, Recommended uses the ServiceRequest resource. The codes for recommending specific observations should reference the code element specified in the respective profile:

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Assessment, Recommended ServiceRequest  
  ServiceRequest.status Constrain to active, completed. While QDM does not have an attribute comparable to status, as a conceptual model, status is implied by the name “Assessment, Order” and “Assessment, Recommended” datatypes.
  ServiceRequest.intent Required to differentiate a recommendation from an order. The intent value set allows such differentiation using “order” for orders and “plan” for recommendation. Constrain only to “plan”
QDM Attributes    
code ServiceRequest.code What is requested, extensible binding to US Core Procedure Codes
id ServiceRequest.id  
reason ServiceRequest.reasonCode Explanation/justification for procedure or service with extensible binding to US Core Condition Codes
authorDatetime ServiceRequest.authoredOn When the request transitioned to being actionable.
negationRationale See Below  
requester ServiceRequest.requester Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM requester attribute was to designate the individual/organization responsible for reporting the measure results is the same individual/organization that requested the procedure or service. However, clinical software generally tracks the individual user entering data and linking that individual to a clinical role, a specialty, or an organization is not easily accomplished.

Use QICoreServiceNotRequested and reference the code element specified in the respective observation profile:

Care Experience

QDM defines Care Experience as the understanding and involvement derived from the direct participation of an individual in the maintenance or improvement of health. QDM represents two kinds of care experience: Patient Care Experience and Provider Care Experience. While generally interpreted as patient or provider satisfaction, experience may also represent understanding, involvement and other factors about the care received or given. Most often organizations obtain such information using questionnaires. Use cases are welcome to help provide examples for us of this concept. The Care Experience concept best fits with the FHIR Observation resource.

QDM’s “Care Experience” maps to either one of two QI-Core profiles, dependent on the type of information desired:

  • QICore Observation Screening Assessment Profile – generally used with for evaluation surveys and assessment tools; if the care experience information is obtained using a survey, the QICore Observation Screening Assessment Profile is appropriate.
  • QICore Simple Observation Profile – If care experience is expressed as a single finding or observation, the QICore Simple Observation profile is appropriate.

Patient Care Experience

QDM “Patient Care Experience” maps to QICore Observation Screening Assessment Profile or QICore Simple Observation, as applicable, for the information desired:

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Patient Care Experience Observation  
  Observation.status Constrain status to - final, amended, corrected. While QDM does not have an attribute comparable to status, as a conceptual model, status is implied by the name “Assessment, Performed” datatype.
QDM Attributes    
code Observation.code Note specific bindings based on the QI-Core or US Core profile used.
id Observation.id  
  Observation.effective[x] dateTime Time observation occurred if a point in time. Although not present in QDM’s “Patient Care Experience” datatype, this element could be useful in expressing measures.
  Observation.effective[x] Period Time observation occurred if it occurs over a period of time. Although not present in QDM’s “Patient Care Experience” datatype, this element could be useful in expressing measures.
authorDatetime Observation.issued Time observation result made available.
recorder Observation.performer Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM performer attribute was to designate the individual/organization responsible for reporting the measure results is the same individual/organization that performed the observation or task. However, clinical software generally tracks the individual user entering data and linking that individual to a clinical role, a specialty, or an organization is not easily accomplished. QICore Observation Screening Assessment Profile

Provider Care Experience

QDM “Provider Care Experience” maps to QICore Observation Screening Assessment Profile or QICore Simple Observation, as applicable, for the information desired:

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Provider Care Experience Observation.code Note specific bindings based on the QI-Core or US Core profile used
QDM Attributes    
code Observation.code Note specific bindings based on the QI-Core or US Core profile used
id Observation.id  
  Observation.effective[x] dateTime Time observation occurred if a point in time. Although not present in QDM’s “Provider Care Experience” datatype, this element could be useful in expressing measures.
  Observation.effective[x] Period Time observation occurred if it occurs over a period of time. Although not present in QDM’s “Provider Care Experience” datatype, this element could be useful in expressing measures.
authorDatetime Observation.issued Time observation result made available.
recorder Observation.performer Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM performer attribute was to designate the individual/organization responsible for reporting the measure results is the same individual/organization that performed the observation or task. However, clinical software generally tracks the individual user entering data and linking that individual to a clinical role, a specialty, or an organization is not easily accomplished.

Care Goal

QDM defines Care Goal as a defined target or measure to be achieved in the process of patient care, that is, an expected outcome. A typical goal is expressed as a change in status expected at a defined future time. That change can be an observation represented by other QDM categories (diagnostic tests, laboratory tests, symptoms, etc.) scheduled for some time in the future and with a particular value. A goal can be found in the plan of care (care plan), the structure used by many stakeholders to define the management actions for the various conditions, problems, or issues identified for the target of the plan. This structure, through which the goals and care-planning actions and processes can be organized, planned, communicated, and checked for completion, is represented in QDM as a Record Artifact in which Care Goal is found.

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Care Goal Goal Describes the intended objective(s) for a patient, group or organization
  Goal.achievementStatus QDM does not include an attribute to determine the status of a goal. QI-Core inherits US Core and USCDI requirements to include this element that indicates concepts such as proposed, planned, accepted, active, on-hold, completed, cancelled, rejected, entered in error with a required binding to value set GoalLifecyleStatus.
QDM Attributes    
code Goal.description Code or test describing the goal. Description has an extensible binding to US Core Goal Codes.
id Goal.id  
statusDate    
targetOutcome Goal.target.detail[x] US Core 6.1.0 (USCDI) includes target outcome with a due date, but it does not include information about the target outcome. Thus neither the target outcome nor the target due date is included in the QI-Core Key Element Table.
relevantPeriod Goal.start[x] When the goal pursuit begins. US Core 6.1.0 (USCDI) includes startDate (date) with binding to GoalStartEvent, events that might initiate a goal; examples include admission to hospital, discharge from hospital, completion time of procedure, childbirth. QI-Core includes the start timing (date) and the triggering event with a preferred binding to GoalStartEvent.
  Goal.target.due[x] QDM does not include a target due date for a goal. US Core 6.1.0 (USCDI) and QI-Core STU 6 include the target due date in their respective profile Key Element Tables. However, likelihood of retrieving a target due date may be limited and those using this element in measure expressions should work with implementers to determine feasibility.
statusDate Goal.statusDate Date when goal status took effect. Neither US Core nor QI-Core include this element in the Key Elements Table for this profile.
relatedTo Goal.addresses Issues addressed by this goal. Neither US Core nor QI-Core include this element in the Key Elements Table for this profile.
performer Goal.expressedBy Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM performer attribute was to designate the individual/organization responsible for reporting the measure results is the same individual/organization that performed the observation or task. However, clinical software generally tracks the individual user entering data and linking that individual to a clinical role, a specialty, or an organization is not easily accomplished. QI-Core does not include this element in the Key Elements Table for this profile.

Communication

QDM defines Communication as the transmission, receipt, or acknowledgement of information sent from a source to a recipient, such as from one clinician to another regarding findings, assessments, plans of care, consultative advice, instructions, educational resources, etc. The following text from the FHIR Communication and Procedure Resources may help to differentiate when to use Communication.

FHIR Communication Resource

This resource is a record of a communication. A communication is a conveyance of information from one entity, a sender, to another entity, a receiver. The sender and receivers may be patients, practitioners, related persons, organizations, or devices. Communication use cases include:

  • A reminder or alert delivered to a responsible provider

  • A recorded notification from the nurse to the on-call physician (or any other specified person) that a patient’s temperature exceeds a value

  • A notification to a public health agency of a patient presenting with a communicable disease reportable to the public health agency

  • Patient educational material sent by a provider to a patient

  • Unable to deliver lab results to ordering physician

Non-patient specific communication use cases may include:

  • A nurse call from a hall bathroom

  • Advisory for battery service from a pump

Boundaries and Relationships (Section 8.22.2) - Communication and Encounter

  • The Communication is about the transfer of information (which might or might not occur as part of an encounter), while Encounter is about the coming together (in person or virtually) of a Patient with a Practitioner. Communication does not deal with the duration of a call, it represents the fact that information was transferred at a particular point in time.

  • The phone calls involving the Patient should be handled using Encounter. Phone calls not involving the patient (e.g. between practitioners or practitioner to relative) that are tracked for billing or other purposes can use Communication to represent the information transferred but are not ideal to represent the call itself. A better mechanism for handling such calls will be explored in a future release.

Communication, Performed

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Communication, Performed Communication  
  Communication.status QDM is a conceptual data model and it does not include a status attribute since it is incorporated in the name of the QDM datatype. QI-Core requires specific detail about status. Constrain to completed.
QDM Attributes    
code Communication.topic Description of the purpose/content with preferred binding to Communication Topic
id Communication.id  
category Communication.category QDM includes the attribute category allowing specification of the class of the communication (e.g., alert, notification, reminder, instruction). However, no current measures require this attribute as a specific category has not been significant to measure intent. Therefore, this element is not present in the QI-Core profile Key Elements Table.
medium Communication.medium How communication occurs (e.g., physical presence, online written, email, handwritten, etc.). This element is not present in the QI-Core profile Key Elements Table.
sentDatetime Communication.sent When sent
receivedDatetime Communication.received When received
authorDatetime Communication.extension:recorded Use of this QDM attribute is restricted to the QDM negation rationale use case. It does not apply to a communication with any status other than “not-done”. See Negation Rationale for Communication, Performed.
relatedTo Communication.basedOn An order, proposal or plan fulfilled in whole or in part by this Communication. No current measures require this attribute. Therefore, this element is not present in the QI-Core profile Key Elements Table
  Communication.inResponseTo Response to a communication
sender Communication.sender Message sender
recipient Communication.recipient Message recipient
negationRationale See Below  
Negation Rationale for Communication, Performed

Use QICoreCommunicationNotDone, which contains:

Diagnosis

QDM defines Condition/Diagnosis/Problem as a practitioner’s identification of a patient’s disease, illness, injury, or condition. This category contains a single datatype to represent all of these concepts: Diagnosis. A practitioner determines the diagnosis by means of examination, diagnostic test results, patient history, and/or family history.

Based on changes in US Core STU5, QI-Core now has two methods for expressing conditions, QICore Condition Problems and Health Concerns Profile, and QICore Condition Encounter Diagnosis Profile. Please reference the respective profile pages for explanation of the rationale for using each of these profiles. Briefly, the Condition Problems and Health Concerns Profile meets the US Core Data for Interoperability (USCDI) version 2 ‘Problems’ and ‘Health Concerns’ and SDOH Problems/Health Concerns requirements. The Condition Encounter Diagnosis Profile further meets the USCDI v2 requirement to define Encounter Diagnosis.

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Condition - Diagnosis - Problem Condition Problems and Health Concerns  
  ConditionProblemsHealthConcerns.clinicalStatus QDM is a conceptual data model and it does not include a status attribute since it is incorporated in the name of the QDM datatype. QI-Core requires specific detail about status. Clinical status defines active, recurrence, relapse, inactive, remission, resolved with required binding to ConditionClinicalStatusCodes
  ConditionProblemsHealthConcerns.verificationStatus Verification status defines confirmed, unconfirmed, provisional, differential, refuted, entered-in-error with required binding to ConditionVerificationStatus. QDM does not contain this attribute but it is valuable to determine metadata about a documented condition.
  ConditionProblemsHealthConcerns.category Category defines the class of condition documentation, e.g., problem-list-item, encounter-diagnosis, health-concern. QDM does not contain this attribute but it is valuable to determine metadata about a documented condition.
QDM Attributes    
code ConditionProblemsHealthConcerns.code Identification of the condition with extensible binding to US Core Condition Codes.
id ConditionProblemsHealthConcerns.id  
prevalencePeriod ConditionProblemsHealthConcerns.onset[x] Estimated or actual date, date-time, or age. Note that some clinical products default condition documentation to date entered with option to change to date of onset.
  ConditionProblemsHealthConcerns.abatement[x] When in resolution/remission. May be dateTime, Age, Period Range, string.
authorDatetime ConditionProblemsHealthConcerns.recordedDate
ConditionProblemsHealthConcerns.assertedDate
Recorded date is date record was first recorded.
Asserted date the condition was first asserted.
severity ConditionProblemsHealthConcerns.severity Subjective severity of the condition (e.g., severe, moderate, mild). This element has limited feasibility and it is not in the Key Elements Table for US Core or QI-Core for Condition Diagnosis and Health Concern or Condition Encounter Diagnosis.
anatomicalLocationSite ConditionProblemsHealthConcerns.bodySite Anatomical location, if relevant. This element has limited feasibility and it is not in the Key Elements Table for US Core or QI-Core for Condition Diagnosis and Health Concern or Condition Encounter Diagnosis. Often, condition.code indicates the body site.
recorder ConditionProblemsHealthConcerns.recorder Individual who recorded the record and takes responsibility for its content. This element has limited utility for a measure use case and it is not in the Key Elements Table for US Core or QI-Core for Condition Diagnosis and Health Concern or Condition Encounter Diagnosis.
  ConditionProblemsHealthConcerns.asserter Individual who is making the condition statement. This element has limited utility for a measure use case and it is not in the Key Elements Table for US Core or QI-Core for Condition Diagnosis and Health Concern or Condition Encounter Diagnosis.

Device

QDM defines Device as an instrument, apparatus, implement, machine, contrivance, implant, in-vitro reagent, or other similar or related article, including a component part or accessory, intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease and not dependent on being metabolized to achieve any of its primary intended purposes.

FHIR defines the Device Resource as a type of a manufactured item that is used in the provision of healthcare without being substantially changed through that activity. The device may be a medical or non-medical device.

FHIR and US Core further differentiate devices into two “classes”:

  • Devices that interact with the human body but do not stay in it are referred to as non-implantable medical devices.
  • Implantable devices are those which stay in the human body with a medical objective for an extended period of time, or even a lifetime.

[Definition reference: Imam W. How to use ISO 13485:2016 to manage implantable devices, ISO 13485 Blog. July 4, 2016. Available at: https://advisera.com/13485academy/blog/2017/07/04/how-to-use-iso-134852016-to-manage-implantable-medical-devices/. Accessed 28 January 2020.]

The FHIR Device Resource addresses both implantable and non-implantable devices. US Core only references Implantable Device. QI-Core inherits Implantable Device from US Core and builds directly from FHIR for the QI-Core Device Resource.

Device, Applied

QDM originally designed Device, Applied to allow access to documentation of device usage. However, evaluation over time indicates that all documentation about usage of a device occurs as an observation. Thus, information about an implanted pacemaker status check, utilization of a patient-use Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) device, results from a glucometer, or use of a wheelchair or cane should use the QDM datatype, Assessment, Performed, or QI-Core Observation. Use of Device, Applied has been synonymous with Procedure, Performed, i.e., placement of or adjustment to a device.

“Device Applied” has been retired in QDM 5.6 in favor of using “Procedure, Performed” or “Assessment, Performed” as appropriate.

Device, Order – Non-Patient-use Devices

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Device Request ServiceRequest  
  ServiceRequest.status Constrain to active, completed. While QDM does not have an attribute comparable to status, as a conceptual model, status is implied by the name “Device, Order” and “Device, Recommended” datatypes.
Device, Order ServiceRequest.intent Required to differentiate an order from a recommendation. The intent value set allows such differentiation using “order” for orders and “plan” for recommendation. Constrain only to “order” (include children: original-order, reflex-order, filler-order, instance-order)
QDM Attributes    
code ServiceRequest.code What is requested, extensible binding to US Core Procedure Codes
id ServiceRequest.id  
reason ServiceRequest.reasonCode Explanation/justification for procedure or service with extensible binding to US Core Condition Codes
authorDatetime ServiceRequest.authoredOn When the request transitioned to being actionable.
negationRationale See Below  
requester ServiceRequest.requester Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM requester attribute was to designate the individual/organization responsible for reporting the measure results is the same individual/organization that requested the procedure or service. However, clinical software generally tracks the individual user entering data and linking that individual to a clinical role, a specialty, or an organization is not easily accomplished.
Negation Rationale for Device, Order

Use QICoreServiceNotRequested, which contains:

Device, Order – Personal Use Devices

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Device Request DeviceRequest  
  DeviceRequest.status Constrain to active, completed. While QDM does not have an attribute comparable to status, as a conceptual model, status is implied by the name “Device, Order” and “Device, Recommended” datatypes.
Device, Order DeviceRequest.intent Required to differentiate an order from a recommendation. The intent value set allows such differentiation using “order” for orders and “plan” for recommendation. Constrain only to “order” (include children: original-order, reflex-order, filler-order, instance-order)
QDM Attributes    
code DeviceRequest.code[x] Device requested with preferred binding to FHIRDeviceTypes.
id DeviceRequest.id  
reason DeviceRequest.reasonReference Linked reason for the request (e.g., condition or observation). This element is not included in the QI-Core profile Key Elements Table since feasibility of retrieval is limited.
authorDatetime DeviceRequest.authoredOn FHIR allows dateTime or Period for desired time or schedule for use.
negationRationale See Below  
requester DeviceRequest.requester Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM requester attribute was to designate the individual/organization responsible for reporting the measure results is the same individual/organization that requested the procedure or service. However, clinical software generally tracks the individual user entering data and linking that individual to a clinical role, a specialty, or an organization is not easily accomplished.
Negation Rationale for Device, Order – Personal Use Devices

Use QICoreDeviceNotRequested, which contains:

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Device Request ServiceRequest  
  ServiceRequest.status Constrain to active, completed. While QDM does not have an attribute comparable to status, as a conceptual model, status is implied by the name “Device, Order” and “Device, Recommended” datatypes.
Device, Order ServiceRequest.intent Required to differentiate a recommendation from an order. The intent value set allows such differentiation using “order” for orders and “plan” for recommendation. Constrain only to “plan”
QDM Attributes    
code ServiceRequest.code What is requested, extensible binding to US Core Procedure Codes
id ServiceRequest.id  
reason ServiceRequest.reasonCode Explanation/justification for procedure or service with extensible binding to US Core Condition Codes
authorDateTime ServiceRequest.authoredOn When the request transitioned to being actionable
negationRationale See Below  
requester ServiceRequest.requester Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM requester attribute was to designate the individual/organization responsible for reporting the measure results is the same individual/organization that requested the procedure or service. However, clinical software generally tracks the individual user entering data and linking that individual to a clinical role, a specialty, or an organization is not easily accomplished.

Use QICoreServiceNotRequested, which contains:

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Device Request DeviceRequest  
  DeviceRequest.status Constrain to active, completed. While QDM does not have an attribute comparable to status, as a conceptual model, status is implied by the name “Device, Order” and “Device, Recommended” datatypes.
Device, Order DeviceRequest.intent Required to differentiate an order from a recommendation. The intent value set allows such differentiation using “order” for orders and “plan” for recommendation. Constrain only to “plan”.
QDM Attributes    
code DeviceRequest.code[x] Device requested with preferred binding to FHIRDeviceTypes.
id DeviceRequest.id  
reason DeviceRequest.reasonReference Linked reason for the request (e.g., condition or observation). This element is not included in the QI-Core profile Key Elements Table since feasibility of retrieval is limited.
authorDatetime DeviceRequest.authoredOn FHIR allows dateTime or Period for desired time or schedule for use.
negationRationale See Below  
requester DeviceRequest.requester Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM requester attribute was to designate the individual/organization responsible for reporting the measure results is the same individual/organization that requested the procedure or service. However, clinical software generally tracks the individual user entering data and linking that individual to a clinical role, a specialty, or an organization is not easily accomplished.

Use QICoreDeviceNotRequested, which contains:

Diagnostic Study

QDM defines Diagnostic Study as any kind of medical test performed as a specific test or series of steps to aid in diagnosing or detecting disease (e.g., to establish a diagnosis, measure the progress or recovery from disease, confirm that a person is free from disease). The QDM differentiates diagnostic studies from laboratory tests in that diagnostic studies are those that are not performed in organizations that perform testing on samples of human blood, tissue, or other substance from the body. Diagnostic studies may make use of digital images and textual reports. Such studies include but are not limited to imaging studies, cardiology studies (electrocardiogram, treadmill stress testing), pulmonary-function testing, vascular laboratory testing, and others.

QI-Core has added specific constraints on the US Core STU6 profile that address such non-laboratory tests. This US Core v6.1.0 profile addresses (USCDI) requirements for Diagnostic Imaging and Clinical Tests Data Classes including all non-laboratory clinical test results (e.g., radiology and other clinical observations generated from procedures). It includes content represented in the previous US Core v5.0.1 and QI-Core STU5 version profiles Clinical Test Result, and Imaging Result:

Diagnostic Study, Order

“Diagnostic Study, Order” should reference orders for studies that will generate results for activities that meet criteria for Observation Clinical Result.

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Diagnostic Study, Order ServiceRequest  
  ServiceRequest.status Constrain to active, completed. While QDM does not have an attribute comparable to status, as a conceptual model, status is implied by the name “Diagnostic Study, Order” and “Diagnostic Study, Recommended” datatypes.
  ServiceRequest.intent Required to differentiate an order from a recommendation. The intent value set allows such differentiation using “order” for orders and “plan” for recommendation. Constrain only to “order” (include children: original-order, reflex-order, filler-order, instance-order)
QDM Attributes    
code ServiceRequest.code What is requested, extensible binding to US Core Procedure Codes
id ServiceRequest.id  
reason ServiceRequest.reasonCode Explanation/justification for procedure or service with extensible binding to US Core Condition Codes
authorDatetime ServiceRequest.authoredOn When the request transitioned to being actionable.
negationRationale See Below  
requester ServiceRequest.requester Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM requester attribute was to designate the individual/organization responsible for reporting the measure results is the same individual/organization that requested the procedure or service. However, clinical software generally tracks the individual user entering data and linking that individual to a clinical role, a specialty, or an organization is not easily accomplished.
Negation Rationale for Diagnostic Study, Order

Use QICoreServiceNotRequested and reference the code element specified in the respective observation profile:

Diagnostic Study, Performed

Individual studies may use QI-Core DiagnosticReport Profile for Report and Note Exchange to provide information about an individual study (e.g., a cardiac ultrasound, MRI, etc.) although some have considered use of other reporting resources and artifacts. Since new studies regularly become available and the nature of existing studies change over time, a complete list of studies to reference a desired result cannot be assured. Therefore, a quality measure or clinical decision support (CDS) artifacts seeking a specific result value should use QICore Observation Clinical Result to request a retrieve of the result value desired. This practice will enable implementers to determine which is the best source for the desired observation. LOINC observable entities may indicate specific methods for determination of results. Measure and CDS developers can reference direct reference codes or value sets using such LOINC codes to specify the type of testing considered acceptable to provide sufficient fidelity to their requests.

QDM Context QI-Core  STU6 Comments
Diagnostic Study, Performed Observation Clinical Result Profile  
  ObservationClinicalResult.category Category helps to narrow the request to the class of observation required to meet measure intent. Each QI-Core or US Core profile has a specific binding to concepts appropriate to the respective profile. ClinicalTestResult has a required binding to US Core Clinical Result Observation Category. Note that QDM does not have an attribute comparable to category, the element may be helpful in expressing a quality measure.
QDM Attributes    
code ObservationClinicalResult.code Note specific binding to LOINCCodes
id ObservationClinicalResult.id  
method ObservationClinicalResult.method Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. Therefore, it is not in the profile Key Elements Table; it can be found in the Snapshot Table tab of the respective profiles.
facilityLocation N/A Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures with respect to “Diagnostic Study, Performed”. There is also no clear element to which to map in the Observation resource
negationRationale See Below  
reason N/A There is no comparable concept element in the Observation resource
relatedTo ObservationClinicalResult.basedOn Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. Therefore, it is not in the profile Key Elements Table; it can be found in the Snapshot Table tab of the respective profiles
result ObservationClinicalResult.value[x] Result Value
interpretation ObservationClinicalResult.interpretation Explanation of significance of the observation result (e.g., critical, high, low)
resultDatetime ObservationClinicalResult.issued Time observation result made available.
relevantDatetime ObservationClinicalResult.effective[x] dateTime Time observation occurred if a point in time.
relevantPeriod ObservationClinicalResult.effective[x] Period Time observation occurred if it occurs over a period of time.
status ObservationClinicalResult.status Constrain status to - final, amended, corrected.
authorDatetime ObservationClinicalResult.issued Time observation result made available.
component ObservationClinicalResult.component Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. Many measures address components of an observation as single elements. Therefore, component is not in the profile Key Elements Table; it can be found in the Snapshot Table tab of the respective profiles
component.code ObservationClinicalResult.component.code See comment about component.
component.result ObservationClinicalResult.component.value[x] See comment about component.
performer ObservationClinicalResult.performer Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM performer attribute was to designate the individual/organization responsible for reporting the measure results is the same individual/organization that performed the observation or task. However, clinical software generally tracks the individual user entering data and linking that individual to a clinical role, a specialty, or an organization is not easily accomplished.
Negation Rationale for Diagnostic Study, Performed

Use QICoreObservationCancelled and reference the code element specified in the respective observation profile:

“Diagnostic Study, Recommended” should reference recommendations for studies that will generate results for activities that meet criteria for Observation Clinical Result.

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Diagnostic Study, Recommended ServiceRequest  
  ServiceRequest.status Constrain to active, completed. While QDM does not have an attribute comparable to status, as a conceptual model, status is implied by the name “Diagnostic Study, Order” and “Diagnostic Study, Recommended” datatypes.
  ServiceRequest.intent Required to differentiate a recommendation from an order. The intent value set allows such differentiation using “order” for orders and “plan” for recommendation. Constrain only to “plan”
QDM Attributes    
code ServiceRequest.code What is requested, extensible binding to US Core Procedure Codes
id ServiceRequest.id  
reason ServiceRequest.reasonCode Explanation/justification for procedure or service with extensible binding to US Core Condition Codes
authorDatetime ServiceRequest.authoredOn When the request transitioned to being actionable.
negationRationale See Below  
requester ServiceRequest.requester Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM requester attribute was to designate the individual/organization responsible for reporting the measure results is the same individual/organization that requested the procedure or service. However, clinical software generally tracks the individual user entering data and linking that individual to a clinical role, a specialty, or an organization is not easily accomplished.

Use QICoreServiceNotRequested and reference the code element specified in the respective observation profile:

Encounter

QDM defines Encounter as an identifiable grouping of healthcare-related activities characterized by the entity relationship between the subject of care and a healthcare provider; such a grouping is determined by the healthcare provider. A patient encounter represents interaction between a healthcare provider and a patient with a face-to-face patient visit to a clinician’s office, or any electronically remote interaction with a clinician for any form of diagnostic treatment or therapeutic event.

Encounter Timing

Implementation considerations must be considered when referencing encounter periods (start to end time).  Some clinical sites may leave Encounters “open” until all documentation has been completed which may take 72 hours or more.  However, the actual encounter may have lasted for a much shorter time period (e.g., 15 minutes for an ambulatory encounter). This issue is addressed in The Office of the National Coordinator for Health IT (ONC) Issue Tracking System as item QDM-235. Two approaches clinical sites have used to manage this issue include:

  • Include a patient check-in and check-out time as part of the visit documentation. These times represent when the patient arrives and leaves, respectively, and these times are used for the Encounter relevant period. However, patient arrival at a location does not necessarily mean the start of the encounter (e.g. a patient arrives an hour earlier than he or she is actually seen by a practitioner).

  • Default an Encounter end as 23:59 on the date of the Encounter date if it is left open to allow completion of documentation and update the end time if the practitioner closing the chart enters a specific time that the encounter ended.

Undoubtedly, other clinical sites have implemented other solutions to documenting end times for ambulatory visits. Quality measure and clinical decision support (CDS) artifact authors should consider such issues when testing the validity and reliability of retrieved responses to data queries.

Defining Arrival Time

Encounter.period provides the start and stop times of an encounter. Some measures require specific reference to encounter admissionTime while others require reference to a concept called arrivalTime. The meaning of Encounter.period start cannot reference both timings. Therefore, by convention and based on previous discussions with various HL7 workgroups, Encounter.period startTime represents admissionTime for hospitalizations. Therefore, to reference arrivalTime QDM and QI-Core use Encounter.location to indicate the physical place where the initial encounter services occur, and Encounter.location.period to indicate the arrivalTime and the departureTime. Thus, the measure query can differentiate between admissionTime used to determine length of stay and arrivalTime used to indicate when the patient presented for care at the location which is prior to the formal completion of the admission process.

An example of an encounter can be found here

Previous versions of QI-Core have used the Encounter.diagnosis element to reference to the list of diagnosis/diagnoses and procedures relevant to the encounter. The Encounter.diagnosis.usevalue helped to differentiates if the diagnosis or procedure role with respect to the encounter, e.g., the admission diagnosis (AD), the discharge diagnosis (DD), the chief complaint (CC), a comorbidity diagnosis (CM), a pre-op diagnosis (pre-op), a post-op diagnosis (post-op) or a billing diagnosis (billing). Further, principal diagnosis was specified by Encounter.diagnosis.use= billing, and Encounter.diagnosis.rank=1 with similar modeling for principal procedures. Further prior versions of QI-Core identified present on admission (POA) using Encounter.diagnosis.onAdmission.

Feedback from implementers and standards experts indicated that concepts such as principal diagnosis, principal procedure, and present on admission were more appropriately retrieved using the Claim profile. Medical record coders review documentation and work with physicians to provide the adjudicated determination of what represents a principal diagnosis, a principal procedure, and the final present on admission flag for each diagnosis. Therefore, the Claim.diagnosis.sequence = 1 plus Claim.diagnosis.diagnosis[x] defines a principal diagnosis. The Claim.diagnosis.onAdmission plus Claim.diagnosis.diagnosis[x] defines which diagnoses are present on admission. The Claim.procedure.sequence = 1 plus Claim.procedure.procedure[x] defines a principal diagnosis.

For this reason, QI-Core STU6 no longer includes Encounter.diagnosis in the Key Element Table of the profile. This QI-Core version aligns with the US Core 6.1.0 using Encounter.reasonCode and Encounter.reasonReference for diagnoses or procedures managed during an encounter. Note the Encounter.reasonCode preferred binding to Encounter Reason Code value set allows use of SNOMED-CT clinical findings, procedures, context-dependent categories, and events; Encounter.reasonReference allows reference to QICore ConditionProblemsHeatlhConcerns, QICore ConditionEncounterDiagnosis, QICore Procedure, QICore SimpleObservation, and QICore ImmunzationRecommendation.

Encounter, Order

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Encounter, Order ServiceRequest  
  ServiceRequest.status Constrain to active, completed. While QDM does not have an attribute comparable to status, as a conceptual model, status is implied by the name “Encounter, Order” and “Encounter, Recommended” datatypes.
  ServiceRequest.intent Required to differentiate an order from a recommendation. The intent value set allows such differentiation using “order” for orders and “plan” for recommendation. Constrain only to “order” (include children: original-order, reflex-order, filler-order, instance-order)
QDM Attributes    
code ServiceRequest.code What is requested, extensible binding to US Core Procedure Codes
id ServiceRequest.id  
reason ServiceRequest.reasonCode Explanation/justification for procedure or service with extensible binding to US Core Condition Codes
authorDatetime ServiceRequest.authoredOn When the request transitioned to being actionable.
facilityLocation ServiceRequest.locationCode Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM “Encounter, Requested” location attribute was to differentiate where an encounter is expected to take place. Discussions with standards experts and vendor implementers at HL7 meetings indicate the request for an encounter should use the scheduling and/or appointment process (these are two different resources in HL7 FHIR). Only in those resources would the concept of the expected location. While the ServiceRequest resource includes a locationCode element with example binding to the ServiceDeliveryLocationRoleType, the QI-Core ServiceRequest profile does not include the item in the Key Element Tale.
priority ServiceRequest.modifierExtension:isElective Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM “Encounter, Requested” priority attribute was to differentiate elective encounters from non-elective encounters. Discussions with standards experts and vendor implementers at HL7 meetings indicate the request for an encounter should use the scheduling and/or appointment process (these are two different resources in HL7 FHIR). Only in those resources would the concept of priority be identified. Thus, the concept is not a clinical one. A procedure may have a priority but not an encounter. Therefore, the QI-Core ServiceRequest profile does not include the modifierExtension:isElective in the Key Element Tale.
negationRationale See Below  
requester ServiceRequest.requester Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM requester attribute was to designate the individual/organization responsible for reporting the measure results is the same individual/organization that requested the procedure or service. However, clinical software generally tracks the individual user entering data and linking that individual to a clinical role, a specialty, or an organization is not easily accomplished.
Negation Rationale for Encounter, Order

Use QICoreServiceNotRequested, which contains:

Encounter, Performed

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Encounter, Performed Encounter  
  Encounter.status Constrain to - arrived, triaged, in-progress, on-leave, finished Note: most retrospective eCQMs will constrain Encounter.status to “finished”. Measures designed to monitor active encounters should consider using “in-progress”. While QDM does not have an attribute comparable to status, as a conceptual model, status is implied by the name “Encounter, Performed”.
QDM Attribute    
code Encounter.type Uses extensible binding to value set: USCoreEncounterType
id Encounter.id  
class Encounter.class Classification of the encounter (e.g., ambulatory, hospital, virtual) with extensible binding to value set: ActEncounterCode
relatedTo Encounter.basedOn Prior versions of QI-Core included a Must Support for basedOn to reference the ServiceRequest generating the encounter. However, there has been no use of this element. Therefore, it no longer appears in the Encounter profile Key Element Table.
relevantPeriod Encounter.period start and end time of encounter
diagnoses    
diagnosis (code) Encounter.reasonCode
or
Encounter.reasonReference
Encounter.reasonCode has preferred binding to Encounter Reason Code value set. Encounter.reasonReference allows reference to QICore ConditionProblemsHeatlhConcerns, QICore ConditionEncounterDiagnosis, QICore Procedure, QICore SimpleObservation, and QICore ImmunzationRecommendation.
presentOnAdmissionIndicator (code) Claim.diagnosis.onAdmission
plus
Claim.diagnosis.diagnosis[x] defines which diagnoses are present on admission.
Indicator of whether the Encounter diagnosis was present at the time of admission. Note: this element uses the value set (required) diagnosis-on-admission (the same value set as used with the claim resource)
rank (Integer) Different from prior QI-Core versions, QI-Core STU6 defines the following concepts:
* principal diagnosis is
Claim.diagnosis.sequence = 1
plus
Claim.diagnosis.diagnosis[x]
* principal procedure is
Claim.procedure.sequence = 1
plus
Claim.procedure.procedure[x]
Note change in QI-Core STU6
procedures Encounter.reasonCode
or
Encounter.reasonReference
[Encounter.reasonCode has preferred binding to Encounter Reason Code value set. Encounter.reasonReference allows reference to QICore ConditionProblemsHeatlhConcerns, QICore ConditionEncounterDiagnosis, QICore Procedure, QICore SimpleObservation, and QICore ImmunzationRecommendation.
lengthOfStay Encounter.length The QDM concept length of stay is expressed using CQL expressions rather than a specific Encounter profile element. Therefore, this element is no longer included in the Encounter profile Key Element Table.
authorDatetime Not Addressed This QDM attribute is not addressed in the FHIR resource. And encounter occurs or it does not.
admissionSource Encounter.hospitalization.admitSource The QDM concept hospital admission source has not been used in CMS measures to-date. In an effort to streamline QI-Core STU6, this element is no longer included in the Encounter profile Key Element Table. It is available from the Snapshot Table but it is not clear that the information is available in clinical records even though it may be in administrative records.
dischargeDisposition Encounter.hospitalization.dischargeDisposition Category or kind of location to which the patient is discharged. E.g., home, hospice, long-term care, etc.
facilityLocations    
code Encounter.location.location The location the encounter takes place.
locationPeriod Encounter.location.period The time during which the patient is present at a specific location. Measures use the location period to identify the arrival and departure times for a location, distinguishing those times from the Encounter.period which provides a hospital admissionTime and dischargeTime.
participant Encounter.participant.individual QDM includes this attribute to designate the individual responsible the patient’s care during this encounter. However, any given encounter may have more than one participant so using this element to specify attribution of care is challenging. Further clinical software generally tracks the individual user entering data and linking that individual to a clinical role, a specialty, or an organization is not easily accomplished. Therefore, QI-Core STU 6 has removed this element from the Key Elements Table. It is not used in measures to-date.
  Encounter.serviceProvider Encounter.serviceProvider identifies the organization that is primarily responsible for the Encounter’s services. Since US Core Encounter includes serviceProvider as a USCDI element, QI-Core STU 6 includes Encounter.serviceProvider in the Key Elements Table. Unlike details about a participant, the organization responsible for the encounter should be available.
QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Encounter, Recommended ServiceRequest  
  ServiceRequest.status Constrain to active, completed. While QDM does not have an attribute comparable to status, as a conceptual model, status is implied by the name “Encounter, Order” and “Encounter, Recommended” datatypes.
  ServiceRequest.intent Required to differentiate a recommendation from an order. The intent value set allows such differentiation using “order” for orders and “plan” for recommendation. Constrain only to “plan”
QDM Attributes    
code ServiceRequest.code What is requested, extensible binding to US Core Procedure Codes
id ServiceRequest.id  
reason ServiceRequest.reasonCode Explanation/justification for procedure or service with extensible binding to US Core Condition Codes
authorDatetime ServiceRequest.authoredOn When the request transitioned to being actionable.
facilityLocation ServiceRequest.locationCode Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM “Encounter, Requested” location attribute was to differentiate where an encounter is expected to take place. Discussions with standards experts and vendor implementers at HL7 meetings indicate the request for an encounter should use the scheduling and/or appointment process (these are two different resources in HL7 FHIR). Only in those resources would the concept of the expected location. While the ServiceRequest resource includes a locationCode element with example binding to the ServiceDeliveryLocationRoleType, the QI-Core ServiceRequest profile does not include the item in the Key Element Tale.
priority ServiceRequest.modifierExtension:isElective Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM “Encounter, Requested” priority attribute was to differentiate elective encounters from non-elective encounters. Discussions with standards experts and vendor implementers at HL7 meetings indicate the request for an encounter should use the scheduling and/or appointment process (these are two different resources in HL7 FHIR). Only in those resources would the concept of priority be identified. Thus, the concept is not a clinical one. A procedure may have a priority but not an encounter. Therefore, the QI-Core ServiceRequest profile does not include the modifierExtension:isElective in the Key Element Tale.
negationRationale See Below  
requester ServiceRequest.requester Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM requester attribute was to designate the individual/organization responsible for reporting the measure results is the same individual/organization that requested the procedure or service. However, clinical software generally tracks the individual user entering data and linking that individual to a clinical role, a specialty, or an organization is not easily accomplished.

Use QICoreServiceNotRequested, which contains:

Family History

QDM defines Family History as a diagnosis or problem experienced by a family member of the patient. Typically, a family history will not contain very much detail, but the simple identification of a diagnosis or problem in the patient’s family history may be relevant to the care of the patient.

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Family History FamilyMemberHistory  
  FamilyMemberHistory.status While QDM does not have an attribute comparable to status, as a conceptual model, status is required for us of most QI-Core profiles. Constrain to partial, completed
QDM Attributes    
code FamilyMemberHistory.condition.code Condition suffered by relation. Extensible binding to Condition/Problem/DiagnosisCodes
id FamilyMemberHistory.id  
authorDatetime FamilyMemberHistory.date When history was recorded or last updated
relationship FamilyMemberHistory.relationship Relationship to the subject. Preferred binding to FamilyMember
recorder N/A There is no comparable element in the FHIR FamilyMemberHistory resource and there is no use case evident for such information

Immunization

QDM defines Immunization as vaccines administered to patients in healthcare settings but does not include non-vaccine agents. The FHIR Immunization Recommendation resource is specifically designed to provide an immunization forecast from a forecasting engine to a provider, basically to carry clinical decision support recommendations specific to immunizations and, therefore, is not consistent with the intent of the QDM datatype “Immunization, Order” or “Immunization, Administered.” The FHIR Immunization Evaluation references an appraisal of an immunization that was administered to determine if it is valid with respect to the expected immunization schedule. The US Core Immunization profile is most consistent with the QDM datatype Immunization, Administered. The mapping tables provided include mapping from QDM Immunization, Administered and a reference to the FHIR Immunization Evaluation resource. Note, the mapping table includes additional metadata about immunizations that QDM does not address, but that may be relevant to quality measures or clinical decision support (CDS) artifacts.

Immunization, Administered

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Immunization, Administered Immunization  
  Immunization.status While QDM does not have an attribute comparable to status, as a conceptual model, status is implied by the name “Immunization, Administered”. Constrain to “completed”
QDM Attributes    
code Immunization.vaccineCode Vaccine product type with extensible binding to CVX Vaccines Administered Value Set.
id Immunization.id  
dosage Immunization.doseQuantity Amount of vaccine administered. In most measure use cases, immunization dose is not required. Therefore, this element is not present in the QI-Core profile Key Elements Table.
negationRationale See Below  
route Immunization.route How the vaccine entered the body. In most measure use cases, immunization route is not required. Therefore, this element is not present in the QI-Core profile Key Elements Table.
reason Immunization.reasonCode Why the immunization occurred. In most measure use cases, immunization rationale is not required. Therefore, this element is not present in the QI-Core profile Key Elements Table.
relevantDatetime Immunization.occurrence[x] Vaccine administration date.
authorDatetime Immunization.recorded When the immunization was first captured in the subject’s record. This QDM attribute is most useful for the negation rationale use case – i.e., documentation why an immunization did not happen. Since the meaning is the timing of information capture, this element may also not be helpful to determine when vaccines given elsewhere were administered.
performer Immunization.performer.actor Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM performer attribute was to designate the individual/organization responsible for reporting the measure results is the same individual/organization that requested the procedure or service. However, clinical software generally tracks the individual user entering data and linking that individual to a clinical role, a specialty, or an organization is not easily accomplished.
Negation Rationale for Immunization, Administered

Use QICoreImmunizationNotDone, which contains:

Immunization, Order

This QDM context references the QI-Core MedicationRequest profile as there is no other FHIR resource to reference an order for an immunization. The mapping uses the QI-Core MedicationRequest resource with the MedicationRequest.intent = order and MedicationRequest.setting set to the setting most appropriate for the intended meaning of the quality measure or clinical decision support (CDS) expression.

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Immunization, Order MedicationRequest  
  MedicationRequest.status While QDM does not have an attribute comparable to status, as a conceptual model, status is implied by the name “Immunization, Order”. Constrain to active, completed.
  MedicationRequest.intent Required to differentiate an order from a recommendation. The intent value set allows such differentiation using “order” for orders and “plan” for recommendation. Constrain only to “order” (include children: original-order, reflex-order, filler-order, instance-order)
QDM Attributes    
code MedicationRequest.medication[x] The QDM “Immunization, Order” datatype uses the QI-Core MedicationRequest profile which has an extensible binding to MedicationClinicalDrug (RxNorm). For Immunizations, can use the same Vaccine product type with extensible binding to CVX Vaccines Administered Value Set as with “Immunization, Administered”.
id MedicationRequest.id  
activeDatetime MedicationRequest.dosageInstruction.timing
with
Timing.repeat.bounds[x] Period
QDM defines active dateTime as when the order indicates the first immunization administration should occur. Active dateTime is most often used to specify immunizations for which administration is intended at a specific time in the future. FHIR allows specification of the period during which the immunization should occur (start dateTime to end dateTime)
authorDatetime MedicationRequest.authoredOn  
dosage MedicationRequest.dosageInstruction.doseAndRate.dose[x] Amount of medication to be administered. Range, quantity
route MedicationRequest.dosageInstruction.route How drug should enter body.
reason MedicationRequest.reasonCode The reason for ordering or not ordering the medication. This element has not been used by existing quality measures. It is not present in the QI-Core profile Key Elements Table.
supply MedicationRequest.dispenseRequest.quantity Amount to be dispensed in one fill
negationRationale See Below  
requester MedicationRequest.requester Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM performer attribute was to designate the individual/organization responsible for reporting the measure results is the same individual/organization that requested the procedure or service. However, clinical software generally tracks the individual user entering data and linking that individual to a clinical role, a specialty, or an organization is not easily accomplished.
Negation Rationale for Immunization, Order

Use QICoreMedicationNotRequested, which contains:

Individual Characteristics

QDM’s approach to defining information about participants in the healthcare process by defining specific attributes of healthcare participants. These properties of a patient, clinician, provider, or facility include demographics, behavioral factors, social or cultural factors, available resources, and preferences. Behaviors reference responses or actions that affect (either positively or negatively) health or healthcare. Included in this category are mental health issues, adherence issues unrelated to other factors or resources, coping ability, grief issues, and substance use/abuse. Social/cultural factors are characteristics of an individual related to family/caregiver support, education, and literacy (including health literacy), primary language, cultural beliefs (including health beliefs), persistent life stressors, spiritual and religious beliefs, immigration status, and history of abuse or neglect. Resources are means available to a patient to meet health and healthcare needs, which might include caregiver support, insurance coverage, financial resources, and community resources to which the patient is already connected and from which the patient is receiving benefit. Preferences are choices made by patients and their caregivers relative to options for care or treatment (including scheduling, care experience, and meeting of personal health goals) and the sharing and disclosure of their health information.

FHIR more effectively represents these concepts in the Level 3 Administration Module – base data that is linked into other modules for clinical content, finance/billing, workflow, etc. The Administration Module specifies information about the patient, related person, practitioner and organization that is the basis of healthcare-related interactions such as encounters. QDM version 5.5 adopted a similar approach to such information by adding a new concept called Entities. Entities represent concepts that can be used to specify details about an actor (or performer) participant in any activity represented by a QDM datatype. These entities are analogous to the FHIR resources Patient, RelatedPerson, Practitioner, and Organization, respectively called Patient, CarePartner, Practitioner and Organization in QDM. The mapping tables show these direct relationships to FHIR resources. However, to maintain backward compatibility with prior QDM versions, QDM 5.5 retains the concept of Patient Characteristics for some metadata about a patient; most of these characteristics map directly to metadata elements in the FHIR Patient resource. QDM 5.5 removed the Provider Characteristics QDM datatype in favor of the Practitioner and Organization entities since there had been little, if any, use of these QDM elements.

Accommodating patient-related metadata requires QI-Core extensions for several elements including:

  • Clinical Trial – Patients may be excluded from some quality measures or clinical decision support (CDS) workflows if they are participating in clinical trials. It is often necessary to determine the nature of the trial as exclusions may only apply if the clinical trial addresses the same clinical condition as the measure or CDS artifact, or if treatments potentially used in the clinical trial or the measure or CDS intervention conflict.

QDM 5.5 also added a new QDM datatype Related Person to allow reference to an individual who has a personal or non-healthcare-specific professional relationship with a patient. Modeled the same as the CarePartner entity, the Related Person is an individual from whose record clinical information should be retrieved to support care provided to the index patient. 

  • Example 1: An infant’s gestational age at the time of birth may be calculated as the difference between the days between the mother’s estimated date of delivery (EDD) and the actual birth date. The mother’s EDD might be entered directly on the infant’s record as an observable entity about a Related Person (the infant’s mother). Alternatively, a cross-context query might request the information from the Related Person’s (mother’s) record.

  • Example 2: An organ recipient risk factor may include a donor’s positive Hepatitis C antibody result. The result relates to the donor (Related Person) whether that result is present on the recipient’s record or if the a cross-context query to the donor’s record retrieves the information.

QDM Entities

QDM Entities & Attributes QI-Core STU6 Comment
Patient Patient  
identifier Patient.identifier.value  
id Patient.id  
Care Partner RelatedPerson Related Person
identifier RelatedPerson.identifier  
id RelatedPerson.id  
relationship RelatedPerson.relationship  
Practitioner Practitioner  
identifier Practitioner.identifier
(or specific practitioner identifier types: Practitioner.identifier:ein)
 
id Practitioner.id  
role PractitionerRole.code  
specialty PractitionerRole.specialty  
qualification Practitioner.qualification.code  
Organization Organization  
identifier Organization.identifier
(or specific organizational identifier types: Organization.identifier:ccn, Organization.identifier:ein)
 
id Organization.id  
organizationType Organization.type QDM attribute name update in QDM 5.6
Location Location New in QDM 5.6
identifier Location.identifier.value New in QDM 5.6
id Location.id New in QDM 5.6
locationType Location.type New in QDM 5.6

Patient Characteristics

QDM Attribute QI-Core STU6 Comments
Race   See US CoreRaceExtension for details
code Patient.extension:race URL: http://hl7.org/fhir/us/core/StructureDefinition/us-core-race
id    
  tribalAffiliation USCDI version 3 added a new concept, tribalAffiliation, using US Core Tribal Affiliation Extension
URL: http://hl7.org/fhir/us/core/StructureDefinition/us-core-tribal-affiliation
Ethnicity    
code Patient.extention:ethnicity URL: http://hl7.org/fhir/us/core/StructureDefinition/us-core-ethnicity
id    
Sex    
code Patient.extension:birthsex When created, QDM’s focus was to address the concept of sex as identified at birth. Hence, this birthsex is the most direct mapping to the intent of QDM. However, USCDI version 3 changes the focus for data capture to Sex as noted in US Core 6.1.0. USCDI also adds the concept of genderIdentity
  Sex USCDI version 3 Sex extension http://hl7.org/fhir/us/core/StructureDefinition/us-core-sex with binding: Created specifically to support United States USCDI v3 data element “Sex” (required), a data element used for general documentation of sex representation: concepts limited to Male, Female, Patient Sex Unknown, asked-declined.
  genderIdentity USCDI version 3 Individual’s gender identity http://hl7.org/fhir/us/core/StructureDefinition/us-core-genderIdentity with binding: Gender Identity (extensible)
id    
Birthdate    
birthDatetime Patient.birthdate Fixed code 21112-8
id    
Clinical Trial Participant   Clinical Trial Participant should be handled as an Observation (i.e., Assessment, Performed) in QDM rather than a Patient Characteristic
Expired    
code Patient.deceased[x] boolean  
id    
cause   Expiration cause requires use of Observation
expirationDatetime Patient.deceased[x] dateTime  
Payer Coverage  
code Coverage.payor QI-Core currently maps to policy holder which actually references the person who owns the policy, not the payor.
relevantPeriod Coverage.period  
id Coverage.id  
Patient Characteristic (generic)    
N/A   Requires definition for modeling a characteristic to QI-Core and FHIR
QDM Attribute QI-Core STU6 Comments
Related Person RelatedPerson  
identifier RelatedPerson.identifier  
id RelatedPerson.id  
linkedPatientId N/A Not present in QI-Core
code RelatedPerson.relationship The nature of the relationship; preferred binding to PatientRelationshipType

Intervention

QDM defines Intervention as a course of action intended to achieve a result in the care of persons with health problems that does not involve direct physical contact with a patient. Examples include patient education and therapeutic communication.

Procedure Vs Intervention

FHIR references both of these concepts using the Procedure resource, specifically noting a process that involves verification of the patient’s comprehension or to change the patient’s mental state would be a Procedure. Therefore, both QDM datatypes, Procedure and Intervention are included in this section of the QDM to QI-Core mapping especially since all of the QDM attributes for each of these QDM datatypes are identical.

Intervention, Performed

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Intervention, Performed Procedure  
QDM Attributes    
status Procedure.status While QDM does not have an attribute comparable to status, as a conceptual model, status is implied by the QDM datatype name “Procedure, Performed”. Constrain to “completed”
code Procedure.code Identification of the procedure. Extensible binding to US Core Procedure Codes
id Procedure.id  
relatedTo Procedure.basedOn A reference to a resource that contains details of the request for this procedure. There has not been a use case for this element in existing measures; therefore, it is not included in the QI-Core profile Key Elements Table.
method N/A Procedure.method does not exist in FHIR. Rather than create an extension, QI-Core’s approach is to assume the Procedure.code includes reference to the method.
rank Claim.procedure.sequence Used to identify a principal procedure in the content of an encounter. See discussion in the QDM “Encounter, Performed” section indicating the rationale for using the Claim profile to identify principal or primary procedures and conditions.
priority N/A This QDM attribute is intended to reference elective from non-elective procedures. See discussion regarding “Encounter, Order” priority which was created to differentiate elective encounters from non-elective encounters. Similar to the encounter discussion, a given procedure is not inherently elective or non-elective, the urgency is based on a patient’s status and other factors. Information about urgency, elective, non-elective may be found a scheduling or appointment application which may generate a tag for a procedure in the clinical record. This item is not present in the FHIR Procedure resource. Measure developers should work with clinical sites to determine the most effective method for identifying procedure priority.
anatomicalLocationSite Procedure.bodySite Target body sites with preferred binding to SNOMEDCT Body Structures. Existing measures have not provided a use case for this element. Therefore, the element does not appear in the QI-Core profile Key Elements Table.
reason Procedure.reasonCode Code reason procedure is performed. Preferred binding to Procedure Reason Codes.
result Simple Observation or Observation Clinical Result that includes the element SimpleObservation.partOf to reference the procedure to which it applies. Procedure.report references DiagnosticReport-note, DocumentReference, Composition (histology result, pathology report, surgical report, etc.); the latter two are not QI-Core resources. However, based on feedback suggested that a procedure result might be better identified as Simple Observation or Observation Clinical Result that includes the element SimpleObservation.partOf resources referencing the ObservatonClinicalResult.partOf, or the SimpleObservation.partOf element to reference the procedure to which it applies.
negationRationale See Below  
relevantDatetime Procedure.performed[x] dateTime When the procedure was performed (as a single point in time).
relevantPeriod Procedure.performed[x] Period When the procedure was performed (over a period of time).
incisionDatetime Procedure.extension:incisionDateTime The first incision time. Existing measures do not use this element; therefore, it is not included in the QI-Core profile Key Elements Table.
authorDatetime Procedure.extension:recorded When the procedure was first captured in the subject’s record. This element is useful for historical procedures and for the QDM negation rationale concept.
  Procedure.usedReference
Procedure.usedCode
These elements help to add reference to a device, medication, or substance used as part of a procedure the QI-Core element to address the device is used by the procedure. However, feedback has suggested that implementers prefer a direct, precoordinated code for the procedure that also indicates the type of device used rather than having to connect a specific item/device used to perform the procedure. Thus, while modeling allows usedCode or usedReference, feasibility is very limited. For that reason, these elements are not included in the QI-Core profile Key Elements Table.
components N/A Procedure does not include component.
component.code N/A N/A
component.result N/A N/A
performer Procedure.performer.actor Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM requester attribute was to designate the individual/organization responsible for reporting the measure results is the same individual/organization that requested the procedure or service. However, clinical software generally tracks the individual user entering data and linking that individual to a clinical role, a specialty, or an organization is not easily accomplished
Negation Rationale for Intervention, Performed

Use QICoreProcedureNotDone, which contains:

Intervention, Order

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Intervention, Order ServiceRequest  
  ServiceRequest.status Constrain to active, completed. While QDM does not have an attribute comparable to status, as a conceptual model, status is implied by the name “Intervention, Order” and “Intervention, Recommended” datatypes.
  ServiceRequest.intent Required to differentiate an order from a recommendation. The intent value set allows such differentiation using “order” for orders and “plan” for recommendation. Constrain only to “order” (include children: original-order, reflex-order, filler-order, instance-order)
QDM Attributes    
code ServiceRequest.code What is requested, extensible binding to US Core Procedure Codes
id ServiceRequest.id  
reason ServiceRequest.reasonCode Explanation/justification for procedure or service with extensible binding to US Core Condition Codes
authorDatetime ServiceRequest.authoredOn When the request transitioned to being actionable.
negationRationale See Below  
requester ServiceRequest.requester Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM requester attribute was to designate the individual/organization responsible for reporting the measure results is the same individual/organization that requested the procedure or service. However, clinical software generally tracks the individual user entering data and linking that individual to a clinical role, a specialty, or an organization is not easily accomplished.
Negation Rationale for Intervention, Order

Use QICoreServiceNotRequested and reference the code element specified in the respective observation profile:

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Intervention, Recommended ServiceRequest  
  ServiceRequest.status Constrain to active, completed. While QDM does not have an attribute comparable to status, as a conceptual model, status is implied by the name “Intervention, Order” and “Intervention, Recommended” datatypes.
  ServiceRequest.intent Required to differentiate a recommendation from an order. The intent value set allows such differentiation using “order” for orders and “plan” for recommendation. Constrain only to “plan”
QDM Attributes    
code ServiceRequest.code What is requested, extensible binding to US Core Procedure Codes
id ServiceRequest.id  
reason ServiceRequest.reasonCode Explanation/justification for procedure or service with extensible binding to US Core Condition Codes
authorDatetime ServiceRequest.authoredOn When the request transitioned to being actionable.
negationRationale See Below  
requester ServiceRequest.requester Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM requester attribute was to designate the individual/organization responsible for reporting the measure results is the same individual/organization that requested the procedure or service. However, clinical software generally tracks the individual user entering data and linking that individual to a clinical role, a specialty, or an organization is not easily accomplished.

Use QICoreServiceNotRequested and reference the code element specified in the respective observation profile:

Laboratory Test

QDM defines Laboratory Test as a medical procedure that involves testing a sample of blood, urine, or other body fluids or specimens. Tests can help determine a diagnosis, plan treatment, check to see if treatment is working, or monitor the disease over time. This QDM data category for Laboratory Test is only used for information about the subject of record.

Rather than directly referencing the US Core Laboratory Result Observation Profile, QI-Core 5.0.0 builds on that profile to add further constraint requirements as QICore Laboratory Result Observation. The reason for this approach is to assure the profile Key Element Table includes elements such as interpretation, specific result datatypes, and additional constraints.

Each laboratory test may be ordered individually or in a panel. Many use panels for convenience for ordering laboratory tests. Since new laboratory panels regularly become available and the myriad of potential laboratory panels available, a complete list cannot be assured. LOINC observable entities may indicate specific methods for determination of results. Measure and CDS developers can reference direct reference codes or value sets using such LOINC codes to specify the type of testing considered acceptable to provide sufficient fidelity to their requests.

Laboratory Test, Order

“Laboratory Test, Order” should reference orders for studies that will generate results for activities that meet criteria for Observation Lab Result.

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Laboratory Test, Order ServiceRequest  
  ServiceRequest.status Constrain to active, completed. While QDM does not have an attribute comparable to status, as a conceptual model, status is implied by the name “Laboratory Test, Order” and “Laboratory Test, Recommended” datatypes.
  ServiceRequest.intent Required to differentiate an order from a recommendation. The intent value set allows such differentiation using “order” for orders and “plan” for recommendation. Constrain only to “order” (include children: original-order, reflex-order, filler-order, instance-order)
QDM Attributes    
code ServiceRequest.code What is requested, extensible binding to US Core Procedure Codes
id ServiceRequest.id  
reason ServiceRequest.reasonCode Explanation/justification for procedure or service with extensible binding to US Core Condition Codes
authorDatetime ServiceRequest.authoredOn When the request transitioned to being actionable.
negationRationale See Below  
requester ServiceRequest.requester Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM requester attribute was to designate the individual/organization responsible for reporting the measure results is the same individual/organization that requested the procedure or service. However, clinical software generally tracks the individual user entering data and linking that individual to a clinical role, a specialty, or an organization is not easily accomplished.
Negation Rationale for Laboratory Test, Order

Use QICoreServiceNotRequested and reference the code element specified in the respective observation profile:

Laboratory Test, Performed

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Laboratory Test, Performed Laboratory Result Observation  
QDM Attribute    
code Observation.code Note specific bindings based on the QI-Core or US Core profile used.
id Observation.id  
method Observation.method Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. Therefore, it is not in the profile Key Elements Table; it can be found in the Snapshot Table tab of the respective profiles.
negationRationale See Below  
reason Observation.basedOn Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. Therefore, it is not in the profile Key Elements Table; it can be found in the Snapshot Table tab of the respective profiles.
result Observation.value[x]  
interpretation Observation.interpretation Explanation of significance of the observation result (e.g., critical, high, low).
relatedTo Observation.partOf Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. Therefore, it is not in the profile Key Elements Table; it can be found in the Snapshot Table tab of the respective profiles.
resultDatetime Observation.issued Time observation result made available.
relevantDatetime Observation.effective[x] Time observation occurred if a point in time.
relevantPeriod Observation.effective[x] Time observation occurred if it occurs over a period of time.
status Observation.status Constrain status to - final, amended, corrected. While QDM does not have an attribute comparable to status, as a conceptual model, status is implied by the name “Assessment, Performed” datatype.
authorDatetime Observation.issued Time observation result made available.
referenceRangeHigh Observation.referenceRange.high Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. Therefore, it is not in the profile Key Elements Table; it can be found in the Snapshot Table tab of the respective profiles.
referenceRangeLow Observation.referenceRange.low Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. Therefore, it is not in the profile Key Elements Table; it can be found in the Snapshot Table tab of the respective profiles.
component Observation.component Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. Many measures address components of a panel of simple observations as single elements. Therefore, component is not in the profile Key Elements Table; it can be found in the Snapshot Table tab of the respective profiles
component.code Observation.component.code See comment about component.
component.result Observation.component.value[x] See comment about component.
component.referenceRangeHigh Observation.component.referenceRange See comment about component.
component.referenceRangeLow Observation.component.referenceRange See comment about component.
performer Observation.performer Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM performer attribute was to designate the individual/organization responsible for reporting the measure results is the same individual/organization that performed the observation or task. However, clinical software generally tracks the individual user entering data and linking that individual to a clinical role, a specialty, or an organization is not easily accomplished.
Negation Rationale for Laboratory Test, Performed

Use QICoreObservationCancelled and reference the code element specified in the respective observation profile:

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Laboratory Test, Recommended ServiceRequest  
  ServiceRequest.status Constrain to active, completed. While QDM does not have an attribute comparable to status, as a conceptual model, status is implied by the name “Laboratory Test, Order” and “Laboratory Test, Recommended” datatypes.
  ServiceRequest.intent Required to differentiate a recommendation from an order. The intent value set allows such differentiation using “order” for orders and “plan” for recommendation. Constrain only to “plan”
QDM Attributes    
code ServiceRequest.code What is requested, extensible binding to US Core Procedure Codes
id ServiceRequest.id  
reason ServiceRequest.reasonCode Explanation/justification for procedure or service with extensible binding to US Core Condition Codes
authorDatetime ServiceRequest.authoredOn When the request transitioned to being actionable.
negationRationale See Below  
requester ServiceRequest.requester Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM requester attribute was to designate the individual/organization responsible for reporting the measure results is the same individual/organization that requested the procedure or service. However, clinical software generally tracks the individual user entering data and linking that individual to a clinical role, a specialty, or an organization is not easily accomplished.

Use QICoreServiceNotRequested and reference the code element specified in the respective observation profile:

Medication

QDM defines Medication as clinical drugs or chemical substances intended for use in the medical diagnosis, cure, treatment, or prevention of disease. Medications are defined as direct referenced values or value sets containing values derived from code systems such as RxNorm. QDM defines five contexts for Medication, each of which is listed below referencing the US Core or FHIR resource which provides the expected context:

Medication, Active

This QDM context correlates with a medication on a patient’s active medication list. In QI-Core STU3, Medication, Active was mapped to MedicationStatement. However, consistent with US Core R4 and subsequent versions, medication list should use MedicationRequest and not MedicationStatement. The mapping table provides guidance about how to use MedicationRequest.requester to specify medications ordered directly, those reported by a physician and those reported by the patient for a medication list.

Include all MedicationRequest resources with an intent = “order” representing authorized medication orders directly derived from the system’s orders.

The MedicationRequest SHALL include all practitioner-reported and “self-reported” medications reported by the Provider, Patient or Related Person.

  • SHALL use reported[x] to indicate the MedicationRequest record was captured as a secondary “reported” record rather than an original primary source-of-truth record. It may also indicate the source of the report
  • When recording “self-reported” or “self-prescribed” medications SHALL use intent = “plan”
  • When recording “self-prescribed” orders, SHOULD use the requester to indicate the Patient or RelatedPerson as the prescriber
QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Medication, Active MedicationRequest  
  MedicationRequest.status While QDM does not have an attribute comparable to status, as a conceptual model, status is implied by the name “Medication, Order”. Constrain to active, completed
  MedicationRequest.intent Required to differentiate an order from a recommendation. The intent value set allows such differentiation using “order” for orders and “plan” for recommendation. Constrain only to “order” (include children: original-order, reflex-order, filler-order, instance-order)
  MedicationRequest.reported[x] When recording “self-reported” or “self-prescribed” medications SHALL use reported[x] to indicate the MedicationRequest record was captured as a secondary “reported” record rather than an original primary source-of-truth record; “self-prescribed” medication SHOULD indicate the MedicationRequest.requester as the patient or related person.
  MedicationRequest.category Type of medication usage using Medication Category Codes
QDM Attribute    
code MedicationRequest.medication[x] Medication to be taken an extensible binding to MedicationClinicalDrug (RxNorm).
id MedicationRequest.id  
dosage MedicationRequest.dosageInstruction.doseAndRate.dose[x] Amount of medication per dose
frequency MedicationRequest.dosageInstruction.timing Amount of medication to be administered. Range, quantity
route MedicationRequest.dosageInstruction.route How drug should enter body
  MedicationRequest.reasonCode The reason for ordering or not ordering the medication. This element has not been used to-date in quality measures; it is not included in the QI-Core profile Key Elements Table
relevantDatetime MedicationRequest.dosageInstruction.timing
with
Timing.event dateTime
Timing – when medication should be administered; Timing.event when the event occurs
relevantPeriod MedicationRequest.dosageInstruction.timing
with
Timing.repeat.bounds[x] Period
Length/Range of lengths, or (Start and/or End) limits
  MedicationRequest.authoredOn When request was originally authored. Not referenced in QDM
recorder MedicationRequest.requester Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM performer attribute was to designate the individual/organization responsible for reporting the measure results is the same individual/organization that requested the procedure or service. However, clinical software generally tracks the individual user entering data and linking that individual to a clinical role, a specialty, or an organization is not easily accomplished.

Medication, Administered

This QDM context correlates with a record of a patient consuming or otherwise being administered a medication. It references individual medication administration events and, therefore, may not reference frequency of administration. Note that a separate QDM and US Core profile address Immunization, Administered.

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Medication, Administered MedicationAdministration  
  MedicationAdministration.status While QDM does not have an attribute comparable to status, as a conceptual model, status is implied by the name “Medication, Administered”. Constrain status to “In-progress” or “completed” Note: Measures that look for evidence of potential adverse events might use MedicationAdministration.status = on-hold, or stopped as possible indicators of such events.
  MedicationAdministration.category Type of medication usage using Medication Category Codes. Allows specification of Inpatient, Outpatient, Community
QDM Attributes    
code MedicationAdministration.medication[x] Medication to be taken an extensible binding to MedicationClinicalDrug (RxNorm).
id MedicationAdministration.id  
dosage MedicationAdministration.dosage.dose Simple Quantity - Amount of medication for one administration
route MedicationAdministration.dosage.route Path of substance into the body with preferred binding to SNOMEDCT Route Codes.
frequency MedicationAdministration.request Reference to original MedicationRequest with content about prescription. Generally, retrieval of medication administration events applies to locations that administer medications directly to a patient (e.g., hospital settings, skilled nursing facilities, Community-Based Residential Facilities (CBRFs), outpatient surgery centers). Linkage to the original authorizing prescription has not been considered relevant for the existing measure use cases requiring only to retrieve information about one or more administration events.
  MedicationAdministration.dosage.rate[x] The rate, dose quantity per unit of time (e.g., infusion rate). This element has not been the focus of measures to date, therefore, it is not included in the QI-Core profile Key Elements Table.
  MedicationRequest.dosageInstruction.timing Timing schedule (e.g., every 8 hours). MedicationAdministration.request provides reference to the applicable MedicationRequest for this information. Generally, retrieval of medication administration events applies to the hospital setting with a few exceptions. Linkage to the original authorizing prescription has not been considered relevant for the existing measure use cases requiring only to retrieve information about one or more administration events.
reason MedicationAdministration.reasonCode Reason administration performed, e.g., none, given as ordered, emergency. Preferred binding to ReasonMedicationGivenCodes.
relevant dateTime MedicationAdministration.effective[x] dateTime Start and end time of administration – dateTime if given at a single point in time.
relevant Period MedicationAdministration.effective[x] Period Start and end time of administration – period if given at over a time interval (e.g., an infusion).
author dateTime MedicationAdministration.extension:recorded Recorded time is used exclusively for the QDM negation rationale concept.
Negation Rationale See Below  
Performer MedicationAdministration.performer.actor Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM performer attribute was to designate the individual/organization responsible for reporting the measure results is the same individual/organization that requested the procedure or service. However, clinical software generally tracks the individual user entering data and linking that individual to a clinical role, a specialty, or an organization is not easily accomplished.
Negation Rationale for Medication, Administered

Use QICoreMedicationAdministrationNotDone, which contains:

Medication, Discharge

This QDM context specifically references the discharge medication list provided to a patient at the time of discharge from an inpatient setting. The list may include reference to new prescriptions sent to a pharmacy for dispensing and self-administration after discharge. It may also include over-the-counter medications and those medications already present in the patient’s home for which new prescriptions are not necessary. The QDM Medication, Discharge concept is mapped to MedicationRequest as a request to the patient to take the medication with MedicationRequest.intent = plan and MedicationRequest.setting = discharge.

MedicationRequest.intent should always be order even if the medication is patient reported and the order is not processed as an e-prescription. The reporter is specified as MedicationRequest.reported[x] which is a reportedBoolean and uses reportedReference (patient, practitioner, practitionerRole, relatedPerson, organization).

This change should also be used to reference the mapping from QDM Medication, Order which can address order or recommended.

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Medication, Discharge MedicationRequest  
Medication, Discharge active MedicationRequest.status While QDM does not have an attribute comparable to status, as a conceptual model, status is implied by the name “Medication, Order”. Constrain to active, completed
  MedicationRequest.intent Required to differentiate an order from a recommendation. The intent value set allows such differentiation using “order” for orders and “plan” for recommendation. Constrain only to “order” (include children: original-order, reflex-order, filler-order, instance-order)
QDM Attributes    
code MedicationRequest.medication[x] Medication to be taken an extensible binding to MedicationClinicalDrug (RxNorm)
id MedicationRequest.id  
dosage MedicationRequest.dosageInstruction.doseAndRate.dose[x] Amount of medication to be administered. Range, quantity
supply MedicationRequest.dispenseRequest.quantity Amount to be dispensed in one fill
daysSupplied MedicationRequest.dispenseRequest.expectedSupplyDuration Number of days supply per dispense
frequency MedicationRequest.dosageInstruction.timing When medication should be administered. Timing schedule (e.g., every 8 hours)
refills MedicationRequest.dispenseRequest.numberOfRepeatsAllowed Number of refills allowed. Integer
route MedicationRequest.dosageInstruction.route How drug should enter body
setting MedicationRequest.category Type of medication usage using Medication Category Codes For MedicationDischarge, constrain category to “Community”.
reason MedicationRequest.reasonCode The reason for ordering or not ordering the medication. This element has not been used to-date in quality measures; it is not included in the QI-Core profile Key Elements Table.
relevantDatetime MedicationRequest.dosageInstruction.timing
with
Timing.event dateTime
Timing – when the medication should be administered; Event – when the event occurs.
relevantPeriod MedicationRequest.dosageInstruction.timing
with
Timing.repeat.bounds[x] Period
Length/Range of lengths or (Start and/or End) limits
authorDatetime MedicationRequest.authoredOn When request was originally authored
negationRationale See Below  
prescriber MedicationRequest.requester Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM performer attribute was to designate the individual/organization responsible for reporting the measure results is the same individual/organization that requested the procedure or service. However, clinical software generally tracks the individual user entering data and linking that individual to a clinical role, a specialty, or an organization is not easily accomplished.
Negation Rationale for Medication, Discharge

Use QICoreMedicationNotRequested, which contains:

Medication, Dispensed

This QDM context maps to the QI-Core MedicationDispense resource, indicating information about medications that have been dispensed.

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Medication, Dispensed MedicationDispense  
  MedicationDispense.status While QDM does not have an attribute comparable to status, as a conceptual model, status is implied by the name “Medication, Dispensed”. Constrain MedicationDispense.status to completed
QDM Attributes    
code MedicationDispense.medication[x] What medication was supplied; extensible binding to Medication Clinical Drug
id MedicationDispense.id  
dosage MedicationDispense.dosageInstruction.doseAndRate.dose[x] Amount of medication per dose
supply MedicationDispense.quantity Amount dispensed
daysSupplied MedicationDispense.daysSupply Amount of medication expressed as a timing amount.
frequency MedicationDispense.dosageInstruction.timing When medication should be administered
refills MedicationDispense.authorizingPrescription Medication order that authorizes the dispense. Reference authorizing prescription (MedicationRequest) which contains MedicationRequest.dispenseRequest.numberOfRepeatsAllowed (number of refills authorized)
route MedicationDispense.dosageInstruction.route How drug should enter body. Most quality measures indicate the route by choosing RxNorm concepts specific to the routes acceptable to meet measure intent. Therefore, this element has not been used in measures with the “Medication, Dispense” QDM datatype and the element is not present in the MedicationDispense profile Key Elements Table.
setting MedicationDispense.category Type of medication usage, with required binding to value set MedicationRequest Category Codes. Inpatient, Outpatient, Community, Discharge
reason MedicationDispense.statusReason[x] Reason for the current status.
relatedTo MedicationDispense.authorizingPrescription Medication order that authorizes the dispense. Reference authorizing prescription (MedicationRequest).
relevant dateTime MedicationDispense.whenHandedOver When provided to patient or representative. Recommendations from pharmacy experts suggest that all medication dispensing events include a time for MedicationDispense.whenPrepared (i.e., when the dispensed product was packaged and reviewed. The time the medication was handed over to the patient or representative may not be populated.) Note that medications not picked up are restocked such that a MedicationDispense.status = completed will assure the patient or representative received the medication even if whenHandedOver is not available. Therefore, measure developers should consider including the time whenPrepared if whenHandedOver is null and status = completed.
relevant Period MedicationRequest.dosageInstruction.timing
with
Timing.repeat.bounds[x] Period
The anticipated time from starting to stopping an ordered or dispensed medication can also be computed in an expression and derived from the duration attribute
author dateTime MedicationDispense.extension:recorded Used only for QDM negation rationale concept, to indicate the time for documentation of reason not dispensed
Negation Rationale See Below  
Prescriber MedicationDispense.authorizingPrescription Reference authorizing prescription (MedicationRequest) which contains MedicationRequest.requester
dispenser MedicationDispense.performer.actor Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM performer attribute was to designate the individual/organization responsible for reporting the measure results is the same individual/organization that requested the procedure or service. However, clinical software generally tracks the individual user entering data and linking that individual to a clinical role, a specialty, or an organization is not easily accomplished.
Negation Rationale for Medication, Dispensed

Use QICoreMedicationDispenseDeclined, which contains:

The MedicationDispensed.status is fixed to “declined” which is defined as “The dispense was declined and not performed.” Considering the clinical workflow, only the pharmacist likely performs the “decline” status - based on medication interaction or on failure of insurance authorization (e.g., medication interaction, denial of insurance authorization, treatment abandonment due to co-pay cost). But the patient would not enter the status, only the pharmacist would do so. The use case likely still works for the measure developer intent (that a valid reason exists for not dispensing the medication). However, if the measure developer wants to address patient’s decisions to avoid dispensing, the patient will likely not show up at the pharmacy for the medication to be dispensed - hence, there will be no dispensing event. The best way to capture that scenario may be to assure the MedicationRequest includes a Patient reason.

Medication, Order

This QDM context references the QI-Core MedicationRequest resource with MedicationRequest.intent = order and MedicationRequest.setting as the most appropriate for the intended meaning of the quality measure or clinical decision support (CDS) expression.

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Medication, Order MedicationRequest  
Medication, Order active MedicationRequest.status While QDM does not have an attribute comparable to status, as a conceptual model, status is implied by the name “Medication, Order”. Constrain to active, completed
  MedicationRequest.intent Required to differentiate an order from a recommendation. The intent value set allows such differentiation using “order” for orders and “plan” for recommendation. Constrain only to “order” (include children: original-order, reflex-order, filler-order, instance-order)
  MedicationRequest.reported[x] When recording “self-prescribed” medications SHALL use reported[x] to indicate the MedicationRequest record was captured as a secondary “reported” record rather than an original primary source-of-truth record
QDM Attributes    
code MedicationRequest.medication[x] Medication to be taken an extensible binding to MedicationClinicalDrug (RxNorm)
id MedicationRequest.id  
dosage MedicationRequest.dosageInstruction.doseAndRate.dose[x] Amount of medication to be administered. Range, quantity
supply MedicationRequest.dispenseRequest.quantity Amount to be dispensed in one fill
daysSupplied MedicationRequest.dispenseRequest.expectedSupplyDuration Number of days supply per dispense
frequency MedicationRequest.dosageInstruction.timing When medication should be administered. Timing schedule (e.g., every 8 hours)
refills MedicationRequest.dispenseRequest.numberOfRepeatsAllowed Number of refills allowed. Integer
route MedicationRequest.dosageInstruction.route How drug should enter body
setting MedicationRequest.category Type of medication usage using Medication Category Codes
reason MedicationRequest.reasonCode The reason for ordering or not ordering the medication. This element has not been used to-date in quality measures; it is not included in the QI-Core profile Key Elements Table.
relatedTo MedicationRequest.basedOn What request fulfills. There has not yet been a use case requiring this element. Therefore, it is not included in the QI-Core profile Key Elements Table.
relevantDatetime MedicationRequest.dosageInstruction.timing
with
Timing.event dateTime
Timing – when the medication should be administered; Event – when the event occurs.
relevantPeriod MedicationRequest.dosageInstruction.timing
with
Timing.repeat.bounds[x] Period
Length/Range of lengths or (Start and/or End) limits
authorDatetime MedicationRequest.authoredOn When request was originally authored
negationRationale See Below  
prescriber MedicationRequest.requester Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM performer attribute was to designate the individual/organization responsible for reporting the measure results is the same individual/organization that requested the procedure or service. However, clinical software generally tracks the individual user entering data and linking that individual to a clinical role, a specialty, or an organization is not easily accomplished.
Negation Rationale for Medication, Order

Use QICoreMedicationNotRequested, which contains:

Participation

QDM defines Participation as a patient’s coverage by a program such as an insurance or medical plan or a payment agreement. Such programs can include patient-centered medical home, disease-specific programs, etc. Definitions modeled similar to the FHIR R4 Coverage resource.

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Participation Coverage  
  Coverage.status While QDM does not have an attribute comparable to status, as a conceptual model, status is implied by the name ”Participation”. Constrain to “active”
QDM Attributes    
code Coverage.type Coverage category such as medical or accident. Required binding to https://cts.nlm.nih.gov/fhir/ValueSet/2.16.840.1.114222.4.11.3591
id Coverage.id  
participationPeriod Coverage.period Coverage start and end dates

Physical Exam

QDM defines Physical Exam as the evaluation of the patient’s body and/or mental status exam to determine its state of health. The techniques of examination can include palpation (feeling with the hands or fingers), percussion (tapping with the fingers), auscultation (listening), visual inspection or observation, inquisition and smell. Measurements may include vital signs (blood pressure, pulse, respiration) as well as other clinical measures (such as expiratory flow rate and size of lesion). Physical exam includes psychiatric examinations.

US Core STU6 added twelve observation profiles that address specific elements of physical examinations. The following table lists each profile and the respective data element codes referenced in each of those profiles.

Profile Data element codes
US Core Vital Signs Profile Vital Signs (panel) – Fixed Value: 85353-1
US Core Pediatric Head Occipital-frontal Circumference Percentile Profile Head Occipital-Frontal Circumference Percentile - Fixed Value: 8289-1
US Core Blood Pressure Profile •Blood Pressure Systolic and Diastolic – Fixed Value: 85354-9
•Systolic Blood Pressure – Fixed Value: 8480-6
•Diastolic Blood Pressure – Fixed Value: 8462-4
•valueQuantity - Fixed Value: mm[Hg]
US Core BMI Profile •ValueQuantity.system - Fixed Value: http://unitsofmeasure.org
•ValueQuantity.code - Coded responses from the common UCUM units for vital signs value set - Fixed Value: kg/m2
US Core Body Height Profile •Body Height – Fixed Value: 8302-2
•ValueQuantity.system - Fixed Value: http://unitsofmeasure.org
•ValueQuantity.code - - Coded responses from the common UCUM units for vital signs value set - Binding: BodyLengthUnits (required)
US Core Body Temperature Profile •Body Temperature – Fixed Value: 8310-5
•ValueQuantity.system - Fixed Value: http://unitsofmeasure.org
•ValueQuantity.code - - Coded responses from the common UCUM units for vital signs value set – Binding: BodyTemperatureUnits (required)
US Core Body Weight Profile •Body Weight – Fixed Value: 29463-7
•ValueQuantity.system - Fixed Value: http://unitsofmeasure.org
•ValueQuantity.code – Coded responses from the common UCUM units for vital signs value set – Binding: BodyWeightUnits (required)
US Core Head Circumference Profile •Head Circumference – Fixed Value: 9843-4
•ValueQuantity.system - Fixed Value: http://unitsofmeasure.org
•ValueQuantity.code - Coded responses from the common UCUM units for vital signs value set - Binding: BodyLengthUnits (required)
US Core Heart Rate Profile •Vital Signs – Heart Rate – Fixed Value: 8867-4
•ValueQuantity.system - Fixed Value: http://unitsofmeasure.org
•ValueQuantity.code - Fixed Value: /min
US Core Pediatric BMI for Age Observation Profile •Pediatric BMI for Age – Fixed Value: 59576-9
•ValueQuantity.system - Fixed Value: http://unitsofmeasure.org
US Core Pediatric Weight for Height Observation Profile •Pediatric Weight for Height – Fixed Value: 77606-2
•ValueQuantity.system - Fixed Value: http://unitsofmeasure.org
•ValueQuantity.code - Coded responses from the common UCUM units for vital signs value set. Fixed Value: %
US Core Pulse Oximetry Profile •Pulse Oximetry – Fixed Value: 59408-5
•O2 Saturation - Fixed Value: 2708-6
•Flow rate Fixed Value: 2708-6
•Flow rate Value quantity Fixed Value: L/min
•Concentration Fixed Value: 3150-0
•ValueQuantity.system - Fixed Value: http://unitsofmeasure.org
•ValueQuantity.code – Fixed Value: %
US Core Respiratory Rate Profile •Vital Signs – Respiratory Rate – Fixed Value: 9279-1
•ValueQuantity.system - Fixed Value: http://unitsofmeasure.org
•ValueQuantity.code - Coded responses from the common UCUM units for vital signs value set - Fixed Value: /min

Physical Exam, Order

QDM “Physical Exam, Order” should use ServiceRequest with intent = order for the specific examination requested.

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Physical Exam, Order ServiceRequest  
  ServiceRequest.status Constrain to active, completed. While QDM does not have an attribute comparable to status, as a conceptual model, status is implied by the name “Physical Exam, Order” and “Physical Exam, Recommended” datatypes.
  ServiceRequest.intent Required to differentiate an order from a recommendation. The intent value set allows such differentiation using “order” for orders and “plan” for recommendation. Constrain only to “order” (include children: original-order, reflex-order, filler-order, instance-order)
QDM Attributes    
code ServiceRequest.code What is requested, extensible binding to US Core Procedure Codes
id ServiceRequest.id  
reason ServiceRequest.reasonCode Explanation/justification for procedure or service with extensible binding to US Core Condition Codes
authorDatetime ServiceRequest.authoredOn When the request transitioned to being actionable.
anatomicalLocationSite N/A No comparable element in the ServiceRequest resource. This element has not been used in measures to-date as the requested procedure / action code can reference the respective anatomical site.
negationRationale See Below  
requester ServiceRequest.requester Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM requester attribute was to designate the individual/organization responsible for reporting the measure results is the same individual/organization that requested the procedure or service. However, clinical software generally tracks the individual user entering data and linking that individual to a clinical role, a specialty, or an organization is not easily accomplished.
Negation Rationale for Physical Exam, Order

Use QICoreServiceNotRequested and reference the code element specified in the respective observation profile:

Physical Exam, Performed

QDM “Physical Exam, Performed” should reference the specific US Core vital signs profiles directly as appropriate. Some results may also be identified using the QICore Observation Clinical Result profile. The QI-Core Simple Observation profile may be appropriate for other physical examination observations not covered by the Observation Clinical Result profile.

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Physical Exam, Performed - General QI-Core Simple Observation
QI-Core Observation Clinical Result
 
  Observation.status Constrain status to - final, amended, corrected. While QDM does not have an attribute comparable to status, as a conceptual model, status is implied by the name “Physical Exam, Performed” datatype.
  Observation.category Category helps to narrow the request to the class of observation required to meet measure intent. Each QI-Core or US Core profile has a specific binding to concepts appropriate to the respective profile. Note that QDM does not have an attribute comparable to category, the element may be helpful in expressing a quality measure.
QDM Attributes    
code Observation.code Note specific bindings based on the QI-Core or US Core profile used.
id Observation.id  
anatomicalLocationSite Observation.bodySite  
relatedTo Observation.basedOn Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. Therefore, it is not in the profile Key Elements Table; it can be found in the Snapshot Table tab of the respective profiles.
negationRationale See Below  
reason Observation.basedOn Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. Therefore, it is not in the profile Key Elements Table; it can be found in the Snapshot Table tab of the respective profiles.
result Observation.value[x]  
  Observation.interpretation Explanation of significance of the observation result (e.g., critical, high, low)
relevantDatetime Observation.effective[x] dateTime Time observation occurred if a point in time.
relevantPeriod Observation.effective[x] Period Time observation occurred if it occurs over a period of time.
authorDatetime Observation.issued Time observation result made available
component Observation.component Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. Many measures address components of a panel of simple observations as single elements. Therefore, component is not in the profile Key Elements Table; it can be found in the Snapshot Table tab of the respective profiles.
component.code Observation.component.code See comment about component
component.result Observation.component.value[x] See comment about component
performer Observation.performer Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM performer attribute was to designate the individual/organization responsible for reporting the measure results is the same individual/organization that performed the observation or task. However, clinical software generally tracks the individual user entering data and linking that individual to a clinical role, a specialty, or an organization is not easily accomplished.
Negation Rationale for Physical Exam, Performed

Use QICoreObservationCancelled and reference the code element specified in the respective observation profile:

QDM “Physical Exam, Recommended” should use ServiceRequest with intent = plan for the specific examination recommended.

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Physical Exam, Recommended ServiceRequest  
  ServiceRequest.status Constrain to active, completed. While QDM does not have an attribute comparable to status, as a conceptual model, status is implied by the name “Physical Exam” and “Physical Exam, Recommended” datatypes.
  ServiceRequest.intent Required to differentiate a recommendation from an order. The intent value set allows such differentiation using “order” for orders and “plan” for recommendation. Constrain only to “plan”
QDM Attributes    
code ServiceRequest.code What is requested, extensible binding to US Core Procedure Codes
id ServiceRequest.id  
reason ServiceRequest.reasonCode Explanation/justification for procedure or service with extensible binding to US Core Condition Codes
authorDatetime ServiceRequest.authoredOn When the request transitioned to being actionable.
anatomicalLocationSite N/A No comparable element in the ServiceRequest resource. This element has not been used in measures to-date as the requested procedure / action code can reference the respective anatomical site.
negationRationale See Below  
requester ServiceRequest.requester Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM requester attribute was to designate the individual/organization responsible for reporting the measure results is the same individual/organization that requested the procedure or service. However, clinical software generally tracks the individual user entering data and linking that individual to a clinical role, a specialty, or an organization is not easily accomplished.

Use QICoreServiceNotRequested and reference the code element specified in the respective observation profile:

Procedure

QDM defines Procedure as an act whose immediate and primary outcome (post-condition) is the alteration of the physical condition of the subject. A procedure may be a surgery or other type of physical manipulation of a person’s body in whole or in part for purposes of making observations and diagnoses or providing treatment.

Procedure Vs Intervention

FHIR references both of these concepts using the Procedure resource, specifically noting a process that involves verification of the patient’s comprehension or to change the patient’s mental state would be a Procedure.

Procedure Vs Task

Some use cases have considered differentiating a FHIR Procedure Resource from a FHIR core Task Resource. For example, should a request to perform medication reconciliation be classified as a Task or a Procedure? The FHIR Procedure Resource Boundaries and Relationships (Section 9.3.2) provides some distinction between a Task and a Procedure:

Task is a workflow step such as cancelling an order, fulfilling an order, signing an order, merging a set of records, admitting a patient. Procedures are actions that are intended to result in a physical or mental change to or for the subject (e.g. surgery, physiotherapy, training, counseling). A Task resource often exists in parallel with clinical resources. For example, a Task might request fulfillment of a ServiceRequest ordering a Procedure.

Based on the guidance provided above, the workflow step to reconcile medication lists may be considered a Task to perform the Procedure that includes reviewing the medication list with the patient to assure it is correct and to education the patient about proper medication usage.

The sponsoring work group is specifically seeking feedback on the following suggestions for use of Task rather than Procedure for workflow steps that require attestation such as medication list review or reconciliation: Example: A workflow step to review or to reconcile medication lists may be considered a Task to perform the Procedure that includes reviewing the medication list with the patient to assure it is correct and to educate the patient about proper medication usage. Thus, a Task can reference the Task.focus as a procedure.

QDM 5.6 does not address Task; therefore, there is no direct mapping from QDM Intervention or Procedure to the FHIR Task resource. The mapping presented is from QDM to QI-Core referencing the FHIR Procedure resource.

Consistent with the method for specifying QDM’s concept negation rationale, a TaskRejected is represented with the following content:

  • Task.status with valueset-task-status constrained to “rejected” (The potential performer who claimed ownership of the task has decided not to execute it prior to performing any action.)
  • Task.statusReason binding to Negation Reason Codes (extensible)
  • Task.code (Codes to identify how the task manages fulfillment of activities - the specific choice depends on the measure context) the direct reference code, it needs a cardinality of 1..1 and binding to the code or value set (it would need a notDoneValueSet url: notDoneValueSet to reference the value set not performed)
  • Task.focus to reference the Resource (likely procedure) the task was acting on
  • Task.encounter (Healthcare event during which this task originated)
  • Task.for (Beneficiary of the Task) Reference (qicore-patient)
  • Task.executionPeriod for the period/dateTime - the timing the task was rejected and the reason.

Procedure Priority

Procedure: priority has the following definition:

Priority indicates the urgency of the procedure or the encounter referenced. In [electronic clinical quality measures] (eCQMs) the priority attribute will help specify elective from urgent encounters (e.g., hospital admissions) or procedures. Priority is a codeable concept (i.e., may use a direct reference code or a value set). For example, priority is used to express an elective procedure or encounter from an emergency procedure or encounter.

As noted in the QDM to QI-Core Mapping for Encounter-Related Diagnoses and Procedures, a specific measure may have interest in evaluating care provided for elective procedures (e.g., hip surgery due to osteoarthritis) while excluding emergency, non-planned procedures (e.g., hip surgery due to acute fracture). The procedure code does not necessarily allow differentiation of the two concepts. A ServiceRequest.priority does have the ability to differentiate the urgency with which the request (or order) should be fulfilled. However, there is no current usage in existing measures and the ServiceRequest.priority element is not included in the ServiceRequest Key Element Table. There is no element within the FHIR Procedure resource to address the issue. Based on lack of a current use case QI-Core has not added an extension to address Procedure.priority and, as a result, there is no direct mapping from the QDM Procedure priority attribute to QI-Core.

Procedure, Performed

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Procedure, Performed Procedure  
QDM Attributes    
status Procedure.status While QDM does not have an attribute comparable to status, as a conceptual model, status is implied by the QDM datatype name “Procedure, Performed”. Constrain to “completed”
code Procedure.code Identification of the procedure. Extensible binding to US Core Procedure Codes
id Procedure.id  
relatedTo Procedure.basedOn A reference to a resource that contains details of the request for this procedure. There has not been a use case for this element in existing measures; therefore, it is not included in the QI-Core profile Key Elements Table.
method N/A Procedure.method does not exist in FHIR. Rather than create an extension, QI-Core’s approach is to assume the Procedure.code includes reference to the method, therefore, this element does not exist in the QI-Core profile
rank Claim.procedure.sequence) Used to identify a principal procedure in the context of an encounter. See discussion in the QDM “Encounter, Performed” section indicating the rationale for using the Claim profile to identify principal or primary procedures and conditions.
priority N/A This QDM attribute is intended to reference elective from non-elective procedures. See discussion regarding “Encounter, Order” priority which was created to differentiate elective encounters from non-elective encounters. Similar to the encounter discussion, a given procedure is not inherently elective or non-elective, the urgency is based on a patient’s status and other factors. Information about urgency, elective, non-elective may be found a scheduling or appointment application which may generate a tag for a procedure in the clinical record. This item is not present in the FHIR Procedure resource. Measure developers should work with clinical sites to determine the most effective method for identifying procedure priority.
anatomicalLocationSite Procedure.bodySite Target body sites with preferred binding to SNOMEDCT Body Structures. Existing measures have not provided a use case for this element. Therefore, the element does not appear in the QI-Core profile Key Elements Table.
reason Procedure.reasonCode Code reason procedure is performed. Preferred binding to Procedure Reason Codes
result Simple Observation or Observation Clinical Result that includes the element SimpleObservation.partOf to reference the procedure to which it applies. Procedure.report references DiagnosticReport-note, DocumentReference, Composition (histology result, pathology report, surgical report, etc.); the latter two are not QI-Core resources. However, based on feedback suggested that a procedure result might be better identified as Simple Observation or Observation Clinical Result resources referencing the SimpleObservation.partOf or ObservationClinicalResult.partOf element to reference the procedure to which it applies.
Negation Rationale See Below  
Relevant dateTime Procedure.performed[x] dateTime When the procedure was performed (as a single point in time).
Relevant Period Procedure.performed[x] Period When the procedure was performed (over a period of time).
Incision dateTime Procedure.extension:incisionDateTime The first incision time. Existing measures do not use this element; therefore, it is not included in the QI-Core profile Key Elements Table.
Author dateTime Procedure.extension:recorded When the procedure was first captured in the subject’s record. This element is useful for historical procedures and for the QDM negation rationale concept.
  Procedure.usedReference
Procedure.usedCode
These elements help to add reference to a device, medication, or substance used as part of a procedure the QI-Core element to address the device is used by the procedure. However, feedback has suggested that implementers prefer a direct, precoordinated code for the procedure that also indicates the type of device used rather than having to connect a specific item/device used to perform the procedure. Thus, while modeling allows usedCode or usedReference, feasibility is very limited. For that reason, these elements are not included in the QI-Core profile Key Elements Table.
Components N/A Procedure does not include component.
Component code N/A N/A
Component result N/A N/A
Performer Procedure.performer.actor Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM requester attribute was to designate the individual/organization responsible for reporting the measure results is the same individual/organization that requested the procedure or service. However, clinical software generally tracks the individual user entering data and linking that individual to a clinical role, a specialty, or an organization is not easily accomplished.
Negation Rationale for Procedure, Performed

Use QICoreProcedureNotDone, which contains:

Procedure, Order

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Procedure, Order ServiceRequest  
  ServiceRequest.status Constrain to active, completed. While QDM does not have an attribute comparable to status, as a conceptual model, status is implied by the name “Procedure, Order” and “Procedure, Recommended” datatypes.
  ServiceRequest.intent Required to differentiate an order from a recommendation. The intent value set allows such differentiation using “order” for orders and “plan” for recommendation. Constrain only to “order” (include children: original-order, reflex-order, filler-order, instance-order)
QDM Attributes    
code ServiceRequest.code What is requested, extensible binding to US Core Procedure Codes
id ServiceRequest.id  
reason ServiceRequest.reasonCode Explanation/justification for procedure or service with extensible binding to US Core Condition Codes
authorDatetime ServiceRequest.authoredOn When the request transitioned to being actionable.
negationRationale See Below  
requester ServiceRequest.requester Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM requester attribute was to designate the individual/organization responsible for reporting the measure results is the same individual/organization that requested the procedure or service. However, clinical software generally tracks the individual user entering data and linking that individual to a clinical role, a specialty, or an organization is not easily accomplished.
Negation Rationale for Procedure, Order

Use QICoreServiceNotRequested and reference the code element specified in the respective observation profile:

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Procedure, Recommended ServiceRequest  
  ServiceRequest.status Constrain to active, completed. While QDM does not have an attribute comparable to status, as a conceptual model, status is implied by the name “Procedure, Order” and “Procedure, Recommended” datatypes.
  ServiceRequest.intent Required to differentiate a recommendation from an order. The intent value set allows such differentiation using “order” for orders and “plan” for recommendation. Constrain only to “plan
QDM Attributes    
code ServiceRequest.code What is requested, extensible binding to US Core Procedure Codes
id ServiceRequest.id  
reason ServiceRequest.reasonCode Explanation/justification for procedure or service with extensible binding to US Core Condition Codes
authorDateTime ServiceRequest.authoredOn When the request transitioned to being actionable.
negationRationale See Below  
requester ServiceRequest.requester Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM requester attribute was to designate the individual/organization responsible for reporting the measure results is the same individual/organization that requested the procedure or service. However, clinical software generally tracks the individual user entering data and linking that individual to a clinical role, a specialty, or an organization is not easily accomplished.

Use QICoreServiceNotRequested and reference the code element specified in the respective observation profile:

Substance

QDM defines Substance as a homogeneous material with a definite composition that includes allergens, biological materials, chemicals, foods, drugs and materials. QDM distinguishes between medications from non-medication substances by separately listing medication datatypes. Substance may or may not have a code or be classified by a code system such as RxNorm. Examples of a substance may include environmental agents (e.g., pollen, dust) and food (e.g., vitamins). Where a measure can use medication terminology (e.g., egg albumin) to represent QDM concept Substance, measure developers should consider expressing intent using the Substance mappings listed in this QDM-to-QI-Core section.

Ideally, use of a substance-related resource should be driven by use cases and examples. Two such use cases currently exist in the quality measure community:

  • Identifying blood products (a biological product in FHIR resources) ordered or administered within specific time relationships to other data elements – The FHIR Resource, BiologicallyDerivedProduct, possibly using Procedure and ServiceRequest might have promise. However, the resource is still in development. Therefore, until further information is available, rather than expressing the QDM datatype Substance, Administration to address administration of blood transfusion, quality measure and clinical decision support (CDS) authors should consider using the procedure resource with a code representing transfusion.
  • Determining exclusive newborn feeding with human breast milk during the initial stay in the hospital after birth – Currently, FHIR R4 includes a NutritionOrder resource to reference a request for a specific diet, or supplements to a diet. However, a resource for documenting administration of nutrition-related substances is still in development. The focus of the FHIR R5 resource NutritionIntake is interoperable messaging between nutrition applications and the EHR (i.e., not EHR to EHR nutrition information sharing). Therefore, for this use case a quality measure or a clinical decision support (CDS) author could reference a NutritionOrder for an exclusive breast milk diet for the infant; however, such an expression could not reference clinical intake and output records to determine if anything other than human breast milk was administered to the infant. Summarizing discussion among HL7 workgroups in late 2023, the QI-Core resource best suited to retrieve information about enteral intake is Observation (i.e., QI-Core Observation in versions STU4.1.1 and STU5.0, and SimpleObservation in STU6.0). The following guidance may help measure developers trying to express retrieval of enteral intake data using SimpleObservation:

    • SimpleObservation.code = with binding to a direct reference code or value set indicating observation of enteral intake
    • SimpleObservation.value with binding to a direct reference code or value set indicating the nutritional product of interest to the measure intent.

NOTE – There is no specific QDM datatype to address the Nutrition Order QI-Core STU 6 profile. Since no current eCQM uses this profile, determination of key elements is challenging. The following table may help measure developers determine what to use for potential use cases:

Nutrition Order QI-Core STU6 Comments
Substance, Order/Recommended - For Diet Orders NutritionOrder Limited to orders for diets or diets with supplements
Substance Order/Recommended Activity NutritionOrder.status Determination of which order status is appropriate to retrieve, specifically constrain to active, completed. Profile has required binding to RequestStatus.
Substance, Order NutritionOrder.intent Enables differentiation of order versus plan. Required binding to RequestIntent. Constrain to “order” and child concepts
Substance, Recommended NutritionOrder.intent Enables differentiation of order versus plan. Required binding to RequestIntent. Constrain to “plan”
QDM Attributes    
ORAL DIET NutritionOrder.oralDiet Oral Diet Components
code (to represent a diet order) NutritionOrder.oralDiet.type Type of oral diet or diet restrictions that describe what can be consumed orally
ENTERAL FORMULA NutrientOrder.enteralFormula Enteral Formula Components
code (to represent a enteral formula) NutrientOrder.eternalFormula.baseFormulaType Type of enteral or infant formula
negationRationale N/A  
authorDatetime NutritionOrder.dateTime Date and time nutrition order was requested
relevantPeriod NutritionOrder.enteralFormula.administration.schedule Likely not relevant for measure use cases. Not present in QI-Core Key Elements Table.

Symptom

QDM defines Symptom as an indication that a person has a condition or disease. Some examples include headache, fever, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and pain. Symptoms are subjective manifestations of the disease perceived by the patient. As an example to differentiate symptom from finding, the patient’s subjective symptom of fever is distinguished from the temperature (a finding). For a finding, there is either a source of a temperature-measuring device together with a recorder of the device (electronically) or an individual (healthcare provider, patient, etc.).

Note: Definitions regarding symptom on the FHIR condition resource Boundaries and Relationships (Section 9.2.2: http://hl7.org/fhir/condition.html):

  • [The Condition] resource is not typically used to record information about subjective and objective information that might lead to the recording of a Condition resource. Such signs and symptoms are typically captured using the Observation resource; although in some cases a persistent symptom, e.g. fever, headache may be captured as a condition before a definitive diagnosis can be discerned by a clinician. By contrast, headache may be captured as an Observation when it contributes to the establishment of a meningitis Condition.

  • Use the Observation resource when a symptom is resolved without long term management, tracking, or when a symptom contributes to the establishment of a condition.

  • Use Condition when a symptom requires long term management, tracking, or is used as a proxy for a diagnosis or problem that is not yet determined.

Based on the FHIR referenced provided above, the QDM datatype Symptom maps to the FHIR Observation resource.

QDM Context QI-Core STU6 Comments
Symptom Simple Observation  
  Observation.status Constrain status to - preliminary, final, amended, corrected. While QDM does not have an attribute comparable to status, as a conceptual model, status is implied by the name “Symptom” datatype.
  Observation.category Category helps to narrow the request to the class of observation required to meet measure intent. Each QI-Core or US Core profile has a specific binding to concepts appropriate to the respective profile. Note that QDM does not have an attribute comparable to category, the element may be helpful in expressing a quality measure.
QDM Attributes    
code Observation.value[x] Note specific bindings based on the QI-Core or US Core profile used.
id Observation.id  
severity Observation.interpretation Explanation of significance of the observation result (e.g., critical, high, low).
prevalencePeriod Observation.effective[x] Time observation occurred if a point in time, or a period. Most likely Symptom will be recorded as a point in time.
recorder Observation.performer Although QDM includes this attribute it has not been used in existing measures and a clear use case has not been established. The original purpose for the QDM performer attribute was to designate the individual/organization responsible for reporting the measure results is the same individual/organization that performed the observation or task. However, clinical software generally tracks the individual user entering data and linking that individual to a clinical role, a specialty, or an organization is not easily accomplished.